Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation - First Aid and Emergency Treatment Guide

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First Aid-Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
About Cardiac Arrest

• Often caused by abnormal heart rhythm
• This aberrant rhythm is ventricular fibrillation (VF)
• During VF heart stops pumping blood
• Patient may stop breathing
• No pulse may be detected
• A shock to the heart, called defibrillation, required
• Defibrillation stops VF, restores heart function

What is CPR?

• Emergency life-saving measure
• Combination of rescue breathing & chest compressions
• Done on unconscious/ non-breathing patient
• Done on persons suffering cardiac arrest
• Also for near-drowning/ asphyxiation/ trauma cases
• CPR conducts defibrillation
• Supports heart pumping for short duration
• Allows oxygen to reach brain
• Buys time till help arrives
• More effective when done as early as possible


• Clear the airway
• Assess if the person is conscious / breathing
• Lay the person on his back on a hard surface
• Using a head tilt -chin lift open his airway
• Check for breathing sound
• If not breathing, start mouth-to-mouth breathing

Mouth- to-mouth breathing

• Pinch the person's nostril shut
• Seal his mouth with your own
• Give the first breath, lasting one second
• Watch if chest rises
• If it rises, give second rescue breath
• If it does not rise, give a head tilt- chin lift
• Now give second rescue breath

Restore circulation through compression

• Place heel of your palm on patient's chest
• Place your other hand above first
• Keep elbows straight
• Push down using upper body weight (compress)
• Push hard and fast
• After 30 compressions, clear airway
• Give two rescue breaths
• This is one cycle
• Give 100 compressions /minute
• Continue CPR till medical help arrives

CPR for children (under 8 yrs/ infant)

• Procedure almost same as for adult
• Following details should be incorporated
• 20 breaths/min should be delivered
• 100 compressions/minute should be given
• Chest compressions - given with one hand


• If done well, CPR saves life
• Normalcy is restored in rescued person
• CPR can also be ineffective, causing death
• In some cases, causes injuries / damages


• Ribs/heart/lungs/ liver may be injured
• After CPR, medical attention should be given

CPR training

• CPR - practical skill acquired through training
• Professional training/ regular practice mandatory
• CPR not confined to medical professionals
• Community organizations, like Red Cross, conduct training

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