A review article summarized the functional properties of grain vinegars and fruit vinegars and compared the functional ingredients, sources, and formation mechanisms of grain and fruit vinegars.
Both grain vinegars ad fruit vinegars are fermented by traditional methods.
Researchers from Huazhong Agricultural University in China looked at studies showing how both grain vinegars and fruit vinegars possess a variety of physiological functions, such as anti-bacteria, anti-infection, anti-oxidation, blood glucose control, lipid metabolism regulation, weight loss, and anticancer activities.
‘Several grain vinegars have shown to strongly inhibit the growth of some cancer cells in vivo or in vitro. This can be used to develop potential therapeutic agents for cancer treatment in future.’
The review published in Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety
summarized that the anti-bacteria and anti-infection abilities of vinegars are mainly due to the presence of organic acids, polyphenols, and melanoidins.
The polyphenols and melanoidins also provide the antioxidant abilities of vinegars, which are produced from the raw materials and fermentation processes, respectively.
The blood glucose control, lipid metabolism regulation, and weight loss capabilities from vinegars are mainly due to acetic acid.
Besides caffeoylsophorose (inhibits disaccharidase) and ligustrazine (improves blood circulation), other functional ingredients present in vinegars provide certain health benefits as well.
Regarding anticancer activities, several grain vinegars strongly inhibit the growth of some cancer cells in vivo or in vitro, but related functional ingredients remain largely unknown, except tryptophol in Japanese black soybean vinegar.