Hypergammaglobulinemia refers to a condition wherein there are high levels of antibodies in the blood. Some autoimmune diseases and persistent infections are characterized by hypergammaglobulinemia. But what are the causes of this hypergammaglobulinemia?
A team headed by INRS's Professor Simona Stager has successfully identified the mechanisms triggering the phenomenon. For the first time ever, she has established a link between B-cell activation by a protein - type 1 interferon - and unusually high antibody levels.
‘A link between B-cell activation by a protein - type 1 interferon - and unusually high antibody levels has been established by researchers.’
The team has also discovered that a parasite can directly activate B cells - the cells responsible for producing unusually high antibody levels. Until now, there has been no evidence that B cells can be directly stimulated by the parasite known to cause visceral leishmaniasis, a neglected and often lethal tropical disease also characterized by high levels of antibodies. How do Leishmania donovani parasites set off this harmful immune reaction? Proteins known as endosomal TLRs (toll-like receptors) recognize the parasites as pathogens, triggering proinflammatory responses.
"In the case at hand, TLRs induce the secretion of interleukin-10 proteins that reduce immune responses and type 1 interferons that increase B-cell antibody production. The fact that type 1 interferons contribute to hypergammaglobulinemia induction was completely unknown," explains Professor Stager. Of particular interest is the fact that activation pathways may play a role in other diseases characterized by rising antibody levels that exacerbate conditions. This is a major lead as this poorly understood phenomenon causes immune reactions and other immune pathologies.