Mangoes have numerous compounds like vitamin C and beta carotene that have antioxidant properties. They also contain several polyphenolic compounds including gallic acid and their larger polymers gallotannins, that have been linked to anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities in previous in vitro and in vivo studies.
The absorption, metabolism, and excretion of mango galloyl derivatives have not previously been investigated in humans. In this human pilot trial published in the Journal of Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
, 11 healthy volunteers between the ages of 21 and 38 years old consumed 400g/day of mango-pulp for 10 days, with blood and urine samples taken on days one and 10 of the study following mango consumption.
‘The vitamin C rich mangoes also contain galloyl derivatives that possess antioxidant properties.’
Participants refrained from consuming dietary supplements and foods which could be sources of gallic acid such as berries, grapes, and tea for one week prior to the beginning of the study and during the 10 days of mango consumption. Seven metabolites of gallic acid were identified in the urine of healthy volunteers, and of those two microbial metabolites were found to be significantly more excreted following 10 days of mango consumption.
The presence of gallic acid and pyrogallol metabolites in human urine after the consumption 400g of mango indicates the absorption, metabolism, and excretion of mango galloyl derivative and confirms the bioavailability of these mango-derived metabolites.