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Know your Oils and Fats - Slideshow

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What are Fats?

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What are Fats?, Know your Oils and Fats
» Chemically fats are made of triglycerides (triesters of glycerol and various fatty acids) and minor components such as phospholipids, glycolipids etc, together known as non-glyceride components.

» They get broken down in the body by the enzymes called lipases produced in the pancreas

» They are generally insoluble in water

» Referred to as one of the macronutrients/proximate principles (One gram of fat provides 9 kcal).

Dietary Role of Fats

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Dietary Role of Fats, Know your Oils and Fats
» They are energy giving foods

» Impart palatability to the diet

» Delay gastric emptying and thereby provide satiety

» Promote the absorption of fat soluble vitamins (A,D,E and K)

» Provide "essential fatty acids"- omega-6 & omega-3

(which cannot be synthesized by the body)

» Maintain body temperature

» Protect body tissues and organs

Different Types of Fats

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Different Types of Fats, Know your Oils and Fats
Saturated Fats

» Generally solid at room temperature

» They occur naturally in many foods, majorly coming from animal sources (which also contain dietary cholesterol)

E.g. eggs, meats, dairy products, butter, ghee, coconut oil, palm oil

Unsaturated Fats

» Generally liquid at room temperature

» Further classified as:

- Monounsaturated fats (MUFA)

- Polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) - omega 6 and omega 3

E.g. vegetable oils, nuts & seeds, fish, olives, avocados

Trans Fats

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Trans Fats, Know your Oils and Fats
» Trans fats are made in an industrial process that adds hydrogen to liquid vegetable oils to make them more solid

» They are also called "partially hydrogenated oils."

» Small amounts of Trans fats are naturally present in some meat and dairy products, including beef, lamb and butterfat.

Trans fats are extensively used in processed and ready to eat foods to enhance flavour and shelf life.

Sources of Fat

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Sources of Fat, Know your Oils and Fats
Invisible Fat

Small amount of fat present as an integral component in all the foods

Plant Foods

(E.g. cereals, pulses/legumes, oilseeds - flaxseed/soyabean/rapeseed etc., green leafy vegetables)

» Have a low content of total fat and saturated fat (except nuts and oilseeds)

» Good sources of mono and poly unsaturated fats

Animal Foods

(E.g. butter, ghee, whole milk, cream, fatty meats etc.)

» Rich in cholesterol and saturated fats

» Are a natural source of trans fats

» Lean meats - have more poly unsaturated fats

» Poultry meat - less fat & cholesterol, more poly unsaturated fats

» Egg - high in cholesterol, good source of poly unsaturated fats

» Fish - low in fat, saturated fat and cholesterol, good source of omega 3 poly unsaturated fats

Visible Fat

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Visible Fat, Know your Oils and Fats
» Used as cooking oil

» Vanaspati (most of the time used as a substitute for ghee in Indian sweets and savoury foods)

» Ghee

Cooking Oils

To be used in combination and rotation

Sources of Monounsaturated Fats:

olive oil, canola oil, rapeseed oil, mustard oil, groundnut oil, ricebran oil, seasame oil

Sources of Polyunsaturated Fats:

» Omega 6: safflower oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, soyabean oil, seasame oil

» Omega 3: fish oil, mustard oil, rapeseed oil, canola oil, flaxseed oil

How Much Total Fat to Eat Every Day?

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How Much Total Fat to Eat Every Day?, Know your Oils and Fats
As recommended by WHO/FAO expert group on diet, nutrition and prevention of chronic diseases

» The total fat (visible + invisible) in the diet should provide between 15-30% of total calories

» Saturated fats - less than 10% » Polyunsaturated fats - between 6-10% (omega 6: 5-8%; omega 3: 1-2%)

» Monounsaturated fats - by difference

» Trans fats - less than 1%

» Cholesterol - <300mg/day

Health Implications of Different Fats

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Health Implications of Different Fats, Know your Oils and Fats
Saturated Fats

» Increase total and LDL cholesterol levels

» Reduce insulin sensitivity

» Increase risk of cardio vascular diseases

Polyunsaturated Fats

» Omega 3 PUFA: increase peripheral glucose utilization, increase insulin sensitivity, decrease adiposity, are anti-atherogenic

» Omega 6 PUFA: decrease total cholesterol, essential component of cell membranes

Monounsaturated Fats

» Reduce abdominal fat

» Maintain cholesterol levels

» Reduce risk of cardio vascular diseases

Make Healthier Choices

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Make Healthier Choices, Know your Oils and Fats
Substitute saturated Fat for Unsaturated

» Replace skimmed milk with whole milk

» Cook with vegetable oil instead of ghee, butter or margarine

» Replace the red & fatty meats with lean meats, poultry or fishes

» Use virgin or nut oils as salad dressings instead of mayonnaise

Avoid frying and roasting of foods

» Better options are to bake, grill, steam or stir-fry

Eat Bakery and Processed Foods (like biscuits, cakes, pastries etc.) Occasionally.

» They are rich in saturated fats and most likely are a source of trans fats

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