A new report has predicted that the human brain could become a battlefield in future wars, including 'pharmacological land mines' and drones directed by mind control.
According to the Guardian, in a report commissioned by the Defense Intelligence Agency of the US, leading scientists were asked to examine how a greater understanding of the brain over the next 20 years is likely to drive the development of new medicines and technologies.
They found several areas in which progress could have a profound impact, including behaviour-altering drugs, scanners that can interpret a person's state of mind and devices capable of boosting senses such as hearing and vision.
"The concept of torture could also be altered by products in this market. It is possible that some day there could be a technique developed to extract information from a prisoner that does not have any lasting side effects," the report stated.
The report highlights one electronic technique, called transcranial direct current stimulation, which involves using electrical pulses to interfere with the firing of neurons in the brain and has been shown to delay a person's ability to tell a lie.
Drugs could also be used to enhance the performance of military personnel.
There is already anecdotal evidence of troops using the narcolepsy drug modafinil, and ritalin, which is prescribed for attention deficit disorder, to boost their performance.
Future drugs, developed to boost the cognitive faculties of people with dementia, are likely to be used in a similar way, the report added.
Greater understanding of the brain's workings is also expected to usher in new devices that link directly to the brain, either to allow operators to control machinery with their minds, such as flying unmanned reconnaissance drones, or to boost their natural senses.
For example, video from a person's glasses, or audio recorded from a headset, could be processed by a computer to help search for relevant information.
The technologies may have applications in counter-terrorism and crime-fighting one day.
According to the report, brain imaging may help identify people at a checkpoint or counter who are afraid or anxious.
"We're not going to be reading minds at a distance, but that doesn't mean we can't detect gross changes in anxiety or fear, and then subsequently talk to those individuals to see what's upsetting them," said Green.