The 105 pupils studied at the Bambous governmental school in the Priority Education Zone in the west of the island, Xinhua reported.
A school official said the children were taken ill after their lunch, comprising rice, lentils, a salad called chouchou and eggs.
The students started vomiting and complained of stomach pain.
They were taken to two hospitals, where officials said the children were out of danger.
However, some parents were not surprised.
A mother of one of the children said she had alerted the authorities through a private radio station about the poor quality of food being served at the school.
Mauritius Education Minister Vasant Bunwaree said everything was under control and there was no need to panic. An investigation has been launched into the incident.