Around 200 kilograms of ketamine worth millions has been smuggled from China, the Taiwan police claimed.
The haul was discovered in a shipment of shoes in three containers sent from the Chinese mainland, said officers at Taoyuan airport in the north.
Demand for drugs is rising in Taiwan as the holiday season approaches, a police officer told AFP.
A 32-year-old man was arrested, the officer said, adding that police were hunting other suspects.
Taiwan police in May seized 450 kilograms of ketamine valued at around Tw$300 million ($10 million).
Authorities have been cracking down on ketamine trafficking amid concern at the level of drug abuse among students and the health dangers of the drug.
Ketamine abuse can lead to a shrivelled bladder, shortness of breath, heart problems, cognitive impairment and mental problems.
Under Taiwan's anti-drug laws, manufacturing, transporting and dealing in ketamine are punishable by a minimum of five years in prison.