Making the pores of a bread larger can trick people into believing that the bread is saltier than it actually is and the process can be used in reducing the overall salt intake and thereby reduce the risk of high blood pressure and heart disease, a new study published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry reveals.
Peter Koehler and colleagues explain that every day, people in industrialized countries consume, on average, twice as much salt as the World Health Organization recommends. Much of that salt — 35 percent in the United Kingdom and about 25 percent in Germany — comes from bread, which for millennia has ranked as one of the world's most ubiquitous foods. Cutting dietary salt would reduce people's risk for developing high blood pressure, which has been diagnosed in 40 percent of adults aged 25 and older worldwide, and heart disease, which was the cause of 30 percent of all deaths in 2008. But the big question is how to do it in a palatable way. Researchers have tried different methods, such as using salt substitutes, but only to limited effect. Studies on cheese and gels has shown that changing texture can make a product taste salty even if salt content is reduced, so Koehler's team decided to see if this would work with bread.
To alter the texture of bread for the study, they baked bread using different proofing times. Proofing is when a baker lets the dough rise. Longer proofing times lead to softer breads with larger pores. The subjects in the study rated the fluffier bread with the longest proofing time as noticeably more salty, even though each bite actually contained less salt. "Appropriate modification of crumb texture thus leads to enhanced saltiness, suggesting a new strategy for salt reduction in bread," say the researchers.