Energy requirement is the amount of food energy needed to balance energy expenditure. This level of intake of an individual, at which he/she remains in a steady state, maintaining predetermined levels of body weight and physical activity, consistent with long term good health, is considered to be the individual's energy requirement
Energy Intake & Expenditure
The body needs regular energy from food for maintaining body temperature, metabolic activity, functioning of heart and other organs and for physical work. However, there are various factors which may influence the daily energy needs such as age, gender, body size, body weight, physical activity levels, and to a certain extent climate and altered physiological status, (pregnancy and lactation).
The body gets energy from the daily intake of solid and liquid foods. The macronutrients - carbohydrate, fat and protein present in the food-get oxidized in the body to provide energy.
The amount of energy given by these macronutrients varies:
► Fat provides 9kcal (37kJ)/g
► Protein provides 4kcal (17kJ)/g
► Carbohydrate provides just 4kcal (17kJ)/g
Energy Requirement Of Individuals:
The actual amount of energy required by an individual depends on his/her basal metabolic rate (BMR) and activity level.
Basal Metabolic Rate
The basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the amount of energy required by an individual to perform basic body functions and involuntary activities - breathing, heart beating and keeping warm when at complete rest.
► Children have a higher BMR due to their growing needs
► Men usually have a higher BMR than women because of more lean body mass
► Older adults usually have a lower BMR because of the decreasing muscle mass as they age.
Physical Activity Level (PAL)
The body needs energy for all kind of movements. In addition to BMR, an individual needs energy to perform both occupational and non-occupational activities throughout the day.
Physical activity level can be categorized as:
HEALTHY ENERGY BOOSTER FOODS
The fiber is retained, enabling delayed digestion & subsequent absorption. Since they digest slowly, therefore, provide long-lasting energy levels. High amounts of fiber and antioxidants help in preventing various health problems.
► Whole wheat
► Whole grain bread
► Brown rice
► Whole wheat pasta
Nuts & Seeds
Snacking on a handful of these nuts and seeds can help you stay full for a longer period of time.
► Sunflower seeds
Fresh fruits can provide a boost of energy as they contain simple carbohydrates/natural sugars which are easily broken down by the digestive system into glucose, energy used by the body. Fruits are also rich in vitamins, minerals, fiber, antioxidants and water.
The intake of dairy products boosts the energy levels without significantly increasing the total calorie intake. Also, they are the major sources of dietary calcium for the body.
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