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Waterborne Diseases Types

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What are the Different Water Borne Diseases?

Disease which are transmitted by drinking contaminated water

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Profuse diarrhea with abdominal cramps.
  • "Rice water" stool containing mucus, epithelial cells and bacteria.
  • Rapid loss of fluid, electrolytes, which leads to profound dehydration, circulatory collapse.
Disease Symptoms Transmission Treatment
Bacillary Dysentery/
Shigellosis
  • Abdominal pain
  • Watery diarrhea
  • Mild fever
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Paint
  • Frequent stools with bloody mucus
Bacillary dysentery is caused by four species of the Genus Shigella
    • Shigella
      sonnei
    • Shigella
      flexneri
    • Shigella
      dysenteriae
    • Shigella
      boydii

Shigella species spread by faecal-oral route

  • Maintain the loss of body fluids by giving Oral re hydration salt solution.
  • Antibiotic treatment for children and aged people
    • Ampicillin
    • Cotrimoxazole
    • Tetracycline
    • Ciprofloxacin
Cholera
  • Cholera is transmitted by drinking water or eating food contaminated with Vibrio cholerae.
  • Floodwaters can carry V. cholerae and contaminate drinking water supplies.
  • Eating raw or under cooked seafood.

Sanitation, food safety and hygiene practices are inadequate.
  • Oral re-hydration salts to replace the loss of fluids and salts.
  • In severe cases antibiotics used are -
    Tetracycline
    Cotrimoxazole
    Erythromycin
    Doxycycline
    Chloramphenicol
    Furazolidone
Hepatitis A
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Anorexia
  • Fever
  • Jaundice
  • Transmitted by faecal-oral route due to faecal contamination of Hepatitis A virus.
  • Causes Infectious Hepatitis.
  • Mortality rate 0.5%
  • Prevention of faecal contamination.
  • Personal hygiene
  • Use of Immune globulin (IG)
  • Hepatitis A virus vaccine available.
Typhoid fever
  • Diarrhea
  • headache
  • malaise
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • enteric fever
  • Gastroenteritis
  • Water-borne disease transmitted by contaminated water containing

Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi causes Typhoid and Paratyphoid fevers.
  • Prevention of faecal contamination which causes water borne disease
  • Chloramphenicol

Ciprofloxacin
Co-trimoxazole
Malaria
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Sweating
  • Headaches
  • Muscle pains
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Transmission of parasite Plasmodium species from infected person to other person by the bite of female anopheles mosquito.
  • Personal prophylaxis-Apply Repellent creams, use mosquito nets
  • Destroying the larval, pupa and adult stages of mosquito by insecticide, biological methods, and physical methods.
  • Treatment of infected person:
    • Quininederivatives
    • Acridine derivatives
    • 4 and 8 Aminoquinolines
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Disease Symptoms Transmission Treatment
Dengue fever
  •  High fever
  •  Severe headache
  •  Backache
  •  Joint pains
  •  Nausea
  • vomiting
  •  Eye pain
  •  Rash
  •  Dengue is transmitted by the Mosquito vector Aedes mosquito which is infected with dengue virus.
  •  Spreads directly from person to person.
  •  Effective mosquito control of Aedes aegypti.
  •  Early clinical diagnosis
  • Analgesics and Fluid Replacement Therapy.
Ascariasis/
Round worm Infestations
Symptoms include
  •  Cough
  •  Wheezing
  •  Fever
  •  Abdominal pain due to intestinal blockage
  • Parasitic infection caused by round worm Ascaris lumbricoides.
  •  Transmitted by eating uncooked contaminated food containing eggs of the worm.
  •  Children's mostly get infected by putting their hands to their mouths after playing in contaminated soil.
  • Avoid contamination of water with Ascaris eggs.
  • Proper disposal of night soil.
  • Washing of fruits and vegetables before eating.
  •  Personal hygiene of washing hands.
Campylobacteriosis
  • Diarrhea
  •  Abdominal pain
  •  Malaise
  • Fever
  •  Nausea
  •  Vomiting
  • Zoonotic disease caused by Campylobacter jejuni.
    causes
    Gastroenteritis worldwide.
  • Drinking chlorinated water
  •  Proper sewage disposal
  •  Complete cooking.
  •  Personal hygiene
  •  Avoid drinking raw milk.
  •  Treatment includes providing Re-hydration therapy with Antibiotics.
Giardiasis
  •  Diarrhea
  •  Mal-absorption of fat
  •  Abdominal
  •  cramps
  •  Nausea
  •  Loss of appetite
  •  Vomiting
  •  Fever
  • Food and water contaminated by human and animal faeces.
  •  Spread by direct contact with infected persons.
  •  Poor sanitation and poor faecal - oral hygiene.
  • Improved water supply.
  •  Proper disposal of human faeces.
  •  Maintenance of food and personal hygiene.
  •  Health education.
  •  Treat with drugs like-
    Metronidazole
    Tinidazole
    Quinacrine hydrochloride.

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Comments

minahil.zia

i get to much imformation for my work and that's really helpful . thanks

Rahul_Rathi

Very helpful information I think we should use water purifiers like Kent for making the water clean. so that we can keep the water borne diseases away. It's also our responsibility to keep the water sources clean.

sanjogundale

This is not possiable sea water will affect our body and cause for any water desease. In weakness we are using salted water for enery and well recovery of body. Sooo 101% possibility is t sunami [ sea water 0 never effect or not cuase for any water diseases

sundar_hi

Is there Still any serotype of vibrio cholera? If present which states are prone to get outbreak?

guest

excellent information wonderful piece of information

guest

ya excellent information but not enough.. because i want some more information.

guest

fine

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