Malaria Control Measures
Personal Prophylaxis -
- Regular use of mosquito nets.
- Use of fans at full speed.
- Use of full sleeves and trousers to cover the hand, legs during sleeping.
- Use of Mosquito repellent oils.
- Use of window screen, mosquito nets to cover doors and windows.
- Use of mosquito repellent coils and liquids and mosquito repellent plants helps ward off malaria.
Destruction of Larva/Anti-larval measures -
a)Use of Paris green
- Paris green is most commonly used for larval control. 1% Paris green is prepared by combining with road dust, ash powder, talc powder or charcoal powder.
- Dusting method of application is done on surface water.
- Paris green can be applied to paddy fields, slow running streams.
- The larva feeds on the Paris green and die.
b)Advantages and Disadvantages
The advantage of oil usage is that both the larvae and pupae of mosquito are killed.
The disadvantages of oil usage :
- Repeated usage may hinder the vegetation growth
- Cannot be used on drinking water sources
- Small fishes in the water may be killed
- Strong winds can break the oil film
Destruction of Adult Mosquitoes:
This method is mostly used in house hold for killing adult mosquitos.
- Pyrethrum is prepared from dried flowers of Pyrethrum cinerarifolium plant.
- Pyrethrum extract can be prepared by distillation to give 1% or 2% extract.
- Mosquitoes get irritated and when they come into contact with suspended pyrethrum extract. This clogs their respiratory system and they die instantly due to suffocation.
Spraying on a systematic scale should be started before commencement of mosquito breeding and continued through out the malaria transmission season.
b)DDT / Dichloro- Diphenyl -Trichlorethane:
- It is a crystalline coarse white powder with a pleasant apple like smell.
- It is a neurotoxic /nerve poison affecting the nervous system and has residual effect of up to 8 to 10 weeks.
- It is not harmful to humans if carefully handled.
c) Natural methods of controlling Mosquitoes:
Chemical methods :
- These methods are done to prevent breeding of mosquitoes and are done by altering the pH of the water by addition of organic substances.
- Fouling clean water by polluting it will sewage and industrial waste water.
- Increasing the salinity of water by adding sea water into fresh water.
- Removing aquatic vegetation and allowing free water flow.
- Use of herbal plants which will eliminate breeding of mosquitoes.
- Using intermittent irrigation, so that water logging is prevented.
- Use of Larvivorous fishes which feed on mosquito larvae.
- Larvivorous fishes are used to control breeding of mosquitoes in wells and fresh waters.
- Gambusia affinis, is a good Larvivorous fish with the following features -
-It has a quick movement and can escape from its enemies
-It is a small fish which does not grow to a big size
-It has no edible value for human consumption
-It can thrive and acclimatized to any type of water
-It reproduces and multiplies in large numbers
Drug Prophylaxis for Malaria for Travellers
- Drugs like plasmoquine can destroy gametocyte of Plasmodium.
- Mass drug prophylaxis is used to protect from clinical manifestations of the disease.
- Plaudrine can be taken weekly once for prophylactic treatment while staying in endemic areas of malaria.