What are the Causes Of Ptosis?
Causes of Congenital Ptosis
There is no obvious cause for almost 50% cases of congenital ptosis. Usually it is due to an abnormality in the development of the eye muscles that elevate the upper lid.
Other causes of congenital ptosis might include-
- Blepharophimosis syndrome
- Conditions affecting the nerves around the face and eyelids, like third nerve palsy
- Birth trauma
- Myasthenia gravis
Causes of Acquired Ptosis
- Malfunction of the nerves, which control and activate the eyelid muscles or a problem with the nerve that sends messages to the muscle. This is known as ‘neurogenic ptosis’.
- Old age (most common cause) - The muscles that elevate the eyelid stretch and become thinned out resulting in loss of muscle tone and the inability to hold the upper lid in the proper position above the eye. This is known as ‘involutional ptosis’.
- Muscle weakness caused by conditions that affect the muscles in the body, like myasthenia gravis or myotonic dystrophy. This is called as ‘myopathic ptosis’.
- Tumor or other lumps cause the eyelids to droop. This is ‘mechanical ptosis’.
- Injury or trauma to the eye as in an accident.
- Use of high doses of opioid drugs such as morphine, oxycodone or hydrocodone. It is a side effect seen in the abuse of drugs such as diacetylmorphine (heroin).
Risk Factors For Ptosis
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Shantived Institute of Medical Sciences, Sikandra