Swine influenza or 'Swine flu' is a type of influenza caused by the Type A swine influenza virus (SIV), that commonly infects pigs.
During the 1918 flu pandemic, pigs and humans became sick and it was then that the connection came to be clearly noticed. For the next 60 years, H1N1 had a unique dominance as the cause of swine flu. Between 1997 and 2002, influenza-causing new strains emerged in North America, some of which comprised of reassorted genes derived from human, swine and avian viruses. These strains of viruses have grown to be the major cause of swine flu in Northern America.
There was a massive effort at vaccination after the 1918 pandemic but it was plagued by reports of developing a neurological condition that leads to weakness of muscles, called Guillain-Barre syndrome, that sometimes had fatal outcomes.
The name influenza is derived from Italian word 'influenza', that means "influence" (Latin: influentia). The word 'flu' is derived from the word 'fluc' that means 'airway passage' of lungs.
Flu pandemics over last 100 years
|Year||Influenza A virus||Subtype||People Infected (approx)||Deaths|
|1918-19||Spanish Flu||H1N1||500 Million||50 Million|
|1957||Asian Flu||H2N2||2 Million|
|1968-69||Hongkong Flu||H3N2||1 Million|
Pigs are unique in that they can act as hosts for strains of influenza virus that infect three different species- humans, birds and needless to say, pigs! These strains of viruses exchange their genes, while in the pig, to give rise to new and dangerous combination of viral strains. In China and in Vietnam the avian influenza virus H3N2 is also found in pigs. The avian strain H5N1 has also been detected in pigs in China. This has resulted in fears over a new strain of virus against which the human race has no immunity and can, therefore, cause innumerable deaths. The swine population becomes a potent reservoir of influenza viruses which can bid their time and attack humans when the latter’s immunity is low.
It must be noted that direct transmission from pigs to humans is extremely rare and that only 12 cases have been reported in the U.S.A since 2005. Transmission of SIV from the pigs to humans can however result in the formation of antibodies against the virus resulting in a condition called zoonosis.
In humans, ‘swine flu’ is known to be caused by H1N1, H1N2, H3N1, H3N2 and H2N3 subtypes of the type A influenza virus, while in pigs the disease is caused by the widely prevalent strains H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2.
The recent 2009 flu outbreak is due to a new strain of subtype H1N1 not previously reported in pigs. Analysis has revealed that two strains of the subtype H1N1 are involved in the formation of this new strain . The origin of this new strain is still being investigated. It is alleged to have evolved in the eggs that scientists use to develop vaccines. But what makes it potent is that it is not a zoonotic infection but a human to human transmittable disease.
Swine influenza is common in the midwestern United States, Mexico, Canada, South America, Europe (UK, Sweden, Italy), Kenya, Mainland China, Taiwan, Japan and other regions of eastern Asia.
There has been a global preparedness to tackle the swine flu thanks to the measures taken against avian flu (or bird flu) that affected several parts of the world. US President Barack Obama has said “We are closely monitoring the emerging cases of swine flu in the United States, and this is, obviously, a cause for concern and requires a heightened state of alert. But it’s not a cause for alarm.”
|Influenza virus A- flu in humans and pigs, common in pigs|
|Influenza virus B- flu in humans, not reported in pigs|
|Influenza virus C –flu in humans, pigs, rare in pigs, not reported in birds|
Latest Publications and Research on Swine FluIsolation of a Reassortant H1N2 Swine Flu Strain of Type "Swine-Human-Avian" and Its Genetic Variability Analysis. - Published by PubMed
The Production of Cytopathic Changes in Canine Cell Lines by Infectious Agents: Cell Lines Derived from Melanoma and Thyroidal Carcinoma. - Published by PubMed
Analysis of the affinity of influenza A virus protein epitopes for swine MHC I by a modified in vitro refolding method indicated cross-reactivity between swine and human MHC I specificities. - Published by PubMed
A multifunctional human monoclonal neutralizing antibody that targets a unique conserved epitope on influenza HA. - Published by PubMed
Swine influenza viruses in Northern Vietnam in 2013-2014. - Published by PubMed