Health Hazards of Smoking - Other Risks
- Respiratory infection - Smoking irritates the lining of the nose and causes increased nasal secretions and swelling.
- Laryngeal polyp- Chronic smokers often develop a persistent hoarse voice and sometimes a soft, benign growth in the voice cords called vocal cord polyps which might need surgical removal.
- Erectile dysfunction- Smoking increases the risk of erectile dysfunction because blood flow into the penis is blocked by atherosclerosis.
- Fertility problems- Smoking causes abnormal sperm shape, impaired sperm motility damage, reduced number of sperms and reduced volume of ejaculate.
- Wrinkling of skin- Tobacco use causes thickening and fragmentation of the elastic fibers of skin and decreases the formation of collagen that maintains a healthy and supple skin. Oxygen supply and the water content of skin are also reduced by reducing circulation.
- Mouth disease- Tobacco use may be one of the most significant risk factors in the development and progression of periodontal disease which results in poor mouth hygiene and bad breath. It stains the teeth and gums.
- Ulcer- Studies have shown that smoking increases acid secretion, and decreases mucosal blood flow resulting in acid peptic ulcer and also delays the healing of gastric and duodenal ulcers.
- Several studies have also shown that smoking leads to less stamina.
- Smoking interferes with the functions of thyroid.
- Smoking causes bone loss leading to bone fractures.
- Smoking accelerates the development of the macular degeneration which gradually leads to loss of vision.
- Smoking increases the chances of developing multiple sclerosis.
- Smoking predisposes to cervical dysplasia.
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Dr. Trupti Shirole. (2016, August 18). Health Hazards of Smoking - Other Risks. Medindia. Retrieved on May 16, 2022 from https://www.medindia.net/patients/patientinfo/smoking_hazards_other_risks.htm.
Dr. Trupti Shirole. "Health Hazards of Smoking - Other Risks". Medindia. May 16, 2022. <https://www.medindia.net/patients/patientinfo/smoking_hazards_other_risks.htm>.
Dr. Trupti Shirole. "Health Hazards of Smoking - Other Risks". Medindia. https://www.medindia.net/patients/patientinfo/smoking_hazards_other_risks.htm. (accessed May 16, 2022).
Dr. Trupti Shirole. 2021. Health Hazards of Smoking - Other Risks. Medindia, viewed May 16, 2022, https://www.medindia.net/patients/patientinfo/smoking_hazards_other_risks.htm.