Written by Dr. Anitha Paderla, MBBS | 
Medically Reviewed by Dr. Sunil Shroff, MBBS, MS, FRCS (UK), D. Urol (Lond) on Sep 17, 2014

Glossary

a. Caffeine: A stimulant found naturally in coffee beans, tea leaves, cocoa beans (chocolate) and kola nuts (cola) and added to soft drinks, foods, and medicines. A cup of coffee has 100-250 milligrams of caffeine. Black tea brewed for 4 minutes has 40-100 milligrams. Green tea has one-third as much caffeine as black tea.

b. Cheek: The side of the face forming the sidewall of the mouth.

c. Chocolate: A food or flavoring made from the seeds of the cacao or chocolate tree. Chocolate is rich in flavinoids, compounds that act as antioxidants. Flavinoids may also lower blood pressure and improve blood flow, by regulating the synthesis of nitric oxide, which dilates blood vessels. Flavinoids, like aspirin, help keep platelets from aggregating on vessel walls. Thus, chocolate may have health benefits, provided it is consumed in moderation.

d. Dehydration: Excessive loss of body water. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract that cause vomiting or diarrhea may, for example, lead to dehydration. There are a number of other causes of dehydration including heat exposure, prolonged vigorous exercise (e.g., in a marathon), kidney disease, and medications (diuretics).

e. Headache: A pain in the head with the pain being above the eyes or the ears, behind the head (occipital), or in the back of the upper neck.

f. Massage: The manipulation of muscle and connective tissue to enhance the function of those tissues and promote relaxation and well-being. Therapeutic massage can ease tension and reduce pain.

g. Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pain results from nerve stimulation. Pain may be contained to a discrete area, or it can be more diffuse.

h. Stress: Forces from the outside world impinging on the individual. Stress is a normal part of life that can help us learn and grow. Conversely, stress can cause us significant problems.

i. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) : The joint that connects the lower jaw to the facial bones.

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