Q Fever is a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by, a bacterium called Coxiella burnetii. It was first identified in Queensland, Australia, in 1935 by Derrick. A zoonotic disease is an animal disease that can be transmitted to humans. Cattle, sheep, and goats are the primary reservoirs of C. burnetii. Pets (cats and dog) are common sources of infection. Milk, birth products, urine, and faeces of infected animals contain the disease causing organisms that are resistant to heat, drying, and many common disinfectants. This resistance allow bacteria to survive for long periods in the environment. Humans are usually infected by inhalation of aerosols or infected air particles. Coxiella can be spread far through the air. Exposure to milk products is a less frequent source of infection.
Spread from human to human (though extremely rare) can occur through sexual intercourse, during delivery, or by blood transfusion. Q Fever is partially seasonal and often related to lambing time.
Males have more severe disease. Middle-aged people are more frequently affected and hospitalized. Only about 50 percent of all people infected with C. burnetii show features of clinical illness. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) is the most dependable and widely used method to detect Q Fever. Diagnosis of Q Fever is made based on laboratory investigations. Doxycycline is the most efficient antimicrobial for Q Fever.
Q Fever is considered by the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) to be a potential agent of bioterrorism. As the Coxiella burnetii is highly resistant to heat and drying, it can survive for long periods in the environment and can be used in biological warfare.
Latest Publications and Research on Q FeverRelevance of Medical Big Data Analysis depends on Clinical Accuracy: The Q fever paradigm. - Published by PubMed
Unrecognized Pre-Transplant Disseminated Coxiella burnetti Infection Diagnosed in a Post-Transplant Heart-Kidney Recipient. - Published by PubMed
Interaction between autophagic vesicles and the Coxiella-containing vacuole requires CLTC (clathrin heavy chain). - Published by PubMed
A Nationwide Seroepidemiologic Study on Q Fever Antibodies in Sheep of Portugal. - Published by PubMed
Q Fever in Military Firefighters during Cadet Training in Brazil. - Published by PubMed