Ovulation is the time when an egg or ovum is released by female ovary, usually midway during the menstrual cycle.
Ovulation is the phase of menstrual cycle that involves release of an egg or ovum by a mature female ovary. It usually occurs midway during the menstrual cycle. About once in a month, an egg matures in the ovarian follicle and is released by one of the ovaries. The released egg travels through the fallopian tube and, if a male sperm happens to be present in the tube, fertilization of the egg occurs and that's how a woman conceives.
The process of ovulation is under control of a small gland in the brain called pituitary, which is in turn controlled by the hypothalamus. Hypothalamus sends signals to the pituitary gland to secrete luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). The sudden surge in the level of these hormones triggers ovulation. Ovulation occurs between 10th and 19th day of menstrual cycle and this is the time when females are most fertile.
Phases of Menstrual Cycle:
The entire menstrual cycle is divided into three phases:
a. Periovulatory or follicular phase: The follicular phase begins with the first day of menstrual cycle and lasts about 10 to 14days. During this phase, the hypothalamus stimulates the pituitary gland to release FSH. FSH stimulates development of follicles in the ovaries. A dominant follicle increases in size and produces the egg. It also increases the estrogen levels in the body.
b. Ovulatory phase: This stage is characterized with the release of an egg from the dominant follicle. Rise in estrogen levels stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete LH. The LH surge causes the mature follicle to release its egg. This process is called ovulation.
c. Postovulatory phase or luteal phase: Luteal phase is the phase that follows ovulation. The empty follicle that released the egg transforms to corpus luteum and secretes a hormone called progesterone. If the egg is fertilized by the sperm, it gets implanted in the inner lining of the uterus. If not, the levels of progesterone decline, causing breakdown of lining. This again marks the beginning of bleeding.
"The Stones of Women (for they have such kind of toys as well as men) differ from the Stones of men for they are within the Belly in Women, but without in men. The use of the Stones in Women, is the same that they are in Men, viz. To concoct seed."- Nicholas Culpeper, 1660
- Signs of Ovulation - (https://americanpregnancy.org/getting-pregnant/signs-of-ovulation/)
- Contraception - (https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/contraception/index.htm)
- The Ovulation Method: Natural Family Planning - By John Billings
- A Clinical Guide for Contraception - By Leon Speroff, Philip D. Darney
- Women's Health: A Practical Guide for Healthcare Professionals - By Sarah Bekaert
Latest Publications and Research on Ovulation
- Progesterone-based timed AI protocols for Bos indicus cattle II: Reproductive outcomes of either EB or GnRH-type protocol, using or not GnRH at AI. - Published by PubMed
- "Falling down": a retroperitoneal catastropheC. - Published by PubMed
- Secretion of equine chorionic gonadotropin and its association with supplementary corpus luteum formation and progesterone concentration in Hokkaido native pony recipient mares. - Published by PubMed
- Follicle priming by FSH and pre-maturation culture to improve oocyte quality inávivo and inávitro. - Published by PubMed
- The female response to seminal fluid. - Published by PubMed