Treatment of Mitral Valve Regurgitation

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Treatment of Mitral Valve Regurgitation

In patients with heart failure doctors follow the New York Heart Association [NYHA] classification to establish the best treatment method. Patients are classified in four categories depending on their symptoms with exertion.

In non-symptomatic patients with chronic mitral regurgitation, their cardiac output is not compromised. They do not need any specific treatment, although they are closely monitored with regular echocardiograms.

In symptomatic patients with chronic mitral regurgitation, medications are directed to relieve the symptoms. Some of the medications increase the cardiac output & heartís contracting ability, reduce blood pressure or remove excess water and sodium from the body.

In acute mitral regurgitation, the patient should be evaluated for heart attack first and treated promptly. Diuretics should be started in case of pulmonary congestion. Blood pressure must be kept normal and atrial fibrillation must be controlled.

Surgery is indicated in acute MR patients in congestive heart failure or shock. Chronic MR patients with class III or IV symptoms require surgery. Intervention is also recommended for patients with Class I or II symptoms but a low ejection fraction. Patients with continued infection from endocarditis or systemic embolization are also candidates for operation.

Antibiotics in patients with rheumatic fever can prevent rheumatic heart disease.

Any patient with mitral regurgitation should take antibiotics to prevent endocarditis (Inflammation of the heart and valves due to an infection).

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Methods for Mitral Valve Repair: Annuloplasty:In annuloplasty an artificial ring is placed around the annulus of the valve.This ring reinforces the annulus and restores the valve to its normal shape and size. Balloon Valvuloplasty:Balloon valvuloplasty is performed using a catheter, i.e. a very thin flexible tube which can be inserted into the body, with a balloon at the end. The balloon is put inside the valve and is expanded thus stretching the valve and bringing it back to its normal size. For more info:

Patients with a biological valve may need replacement valve of 10-15 years. Mechanical valves may also fail, so patients should inform their doctor if they have symptoms of valve insufficiency. Patients with mechanical valves must take blood-thinning medication at the end of their lives. Because these medicines increase the risk of bleeding in the body, you should always be used in medical notification bracelet and the doctor or dentist that you are taking anticoagulant medicine. Even if you take anticoagulant medication, you should always inform your doctor and dentist to have had valve surgery. If you have any surgery or dentistry, you should take antibiotics before the procedure. The bacteria can enter the bloodstream during these procedures. If bacteria enter the repair or artificial heart valves, can lead to a serious condition called bacterial endocarditis. Antibiotics can prevent bacterial endocarditis.

Mitral Regurgitation also known as mitral insufficiency or mitral incompetence is a disorder affecting the mitral valve of the heart. The cusps or flaps of the mitral valve do not seal tightly in this condition and causes a backflow of blood through the mitral valve from the left ventricle to the let atrium of the heart. The heart valve in this state is referred to as a leaky valve.

Various symptoms are
* Shortness of breath.
* Pulmonary edema or fluid accumulation in the lungs.
* Orthopnea or shortness of breath while lying flat.
* Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea or Cardiac Asthma
* Decreased exercise tolerance.
* Swollen feet or ankles.


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