Last Updated on May 05, 2015


Canker sore – These are small, painful ulcers occurring in the inside of the mouth, lips and the throat. Vitamin deficiencies, hormone imbalances, stress, autoimmune disorders or spicy food can cause canker sores.

Cysts – It is a closed sac containing a group of cells, which are separated from the neighboring tissue with a membrane and partition.

Eosinophilic esophagitis – It is the inflammation of the esophagus, with accumulation of a huge number of eosinophil in the esophagus.

GERD – It is a condition in which the acidic stomach contents are forced into the esophagus causing damage of the esophageal mucosa.

Granuloma – It is a collection of immune cells. This happens because the immune system is unable to eliminate substances which, it perceives as foreign like viruses, fungi, keratin and bacteria.

Zenker’s diverticulum – It is a diverticulum of the mucosa of the pharynx above the upper sphincter of the esophagus or above the crico-pharyngeal muscle. It is also called as pharyngo-esophageal diverticulum or pharyngeal pouch or hypo-pharyngeal diverticulum.

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