Tests Before Kidney Transplantation

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Written by Dr. Varshini Jayaraman,  Ph.D. | Medically Reviewed by Dr. Ramya Ananthakrishnan, MD on Sep 08, 2014
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What Tests Are Done Before A Renal Transplantation?

Blood group compatibility

Different tests are conducted for the donor and the recipient, to ensure a successful transplantation. First of all the donor and recipient’s blood group should be compatible. If not the organs would be rejected. The following table illustrates these compatibilities:

RECIPIENT BLOOD GROUP ACCEPTABLE DONOR BLOOD GROUP

O

O
A A & O
B B & O
AB A, B, AB & O

Tissue typing

We are all unique in our own ways and so are our tissues. (Body is made up of trillions of small individual units called cells. A group of cells is called tissue.) The human body has the remarkable power to distinguish what is self and non-self. If by any mechanism our body identifies the new kidney as a foreign body, it will immediately try to destroy it. This phenomenon is called rejection.

However, the tissues of different individuals can sometimes share some or all-common characteristics (these characteristics are called tissue antigens). Although there are many such antigens but for the purpose of transplantation we are mainly concerned with four major antigen called HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DR. It is necessary for the donor and tissue type to be matched to ensure a successful transplantation. This process, by which two different tissues are tested for compatibility is called tissue typing.

Kidney Transplantation - References

  1.    Smith’s General Urology (15th Edition)
  2. Emil A. Tanagho, MD and Jack W. McAninch, MD
  3.  The McGraw- Hill Companies
  4. Kidney transplant - (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003005.htm)

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