Gonorrhea is a very common sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a bacterium called Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Gonorrhea is a very common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that is caused by a bacterium called Neisseria gonorrhoeae. It is spread during sexual intercourse- vaginal, oral, and anal. Most often, gonorrhea is found in younger people (aged 15-30 years) who have multiple sex partners. It can also be spread from mother to child during pregnancy or child birth.
Gonorrhea does not always cause symptoms. In men, it can cause pain and burning sensation when urinating, and discharge from the penis. In women, gonorrhea can cause pain when urinating, bleeding between periods, and yellowish discharge from the vagina. If left untreated, it can lead to complications like epididymitis in men and pelvic inflammatory disease in women, which causes infertility.
Laboratory tests like gram stain, culture tests or DNA tests are useful to diagnose gonorrhea.
Gonorrhea can be cured with antibiotics. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but does not completely eliminate the risk of transmission of gonorrhea.
What is New in Gonorrhea?
New insights on how the gonorrhea bacteria cleverly escape the immune system have been discovered in the study. Gonorrhea-causing superbugs have been found to create smaller blebs of bacterial membrane vesicles, which attack human immune cells (macrophages). They also found that these membrane vesicles interacted with 'macrophages,' triggering these to die in an orchestrated suicide process.
Latest Publications and Research on Gonorrhea
- Screening and Counseling Adolescents and Young Adults: A Framework for Comprehensive Care. - Published by PubMed
- Availability of Safety-net Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinical Services in the U.S., 2018. - Published by PubMed
- Mosaic structure of the penA gene in the oropharynx of men who have sex with men negative for gonorrhoea. - Published by PubMed
- Structural Basis for Evasion of Nutritional Immunity by the Pathogenic Neisseriae. - Published by PubMed
- Prenatal chlamydial, gonococcal, and trichomonal screening in the Democratic Republic of Congo for case detection and management. - Published by PubMed