Genetic risk factor: Any change in the gene sequence that increases the chances of the individual developing the disease.

Prenatal testing: Prenatal testing is carried out during pregnancy. This can be done to test the general health of the fetus or to test for genetic disorders.

Atrophy: Wasting away of cells, primarily due to degeneration of cells.

Linkage analysis: A study that is carried out to ascertain the linkage of genes.

Apoptosis: Programmed cell death.

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