Intermittent claudication: An intense pain in parts or whole leg that occurs after exercise or during walking. Pain can occur in the calf, thigh, foot or buttock and usually subsides with rest.

Varicose veins: Abnormal twisting and enlargement of veins near the surface of the skin, most commonly occurring in the legs and ankles.

Radiofrequency ablation: A medical procedure in which high frequency alternating current is used to surgically remove part of the electrical conduction system of the heart, tumor or other dysfunctional tissue, using the heat generated from the current. It is generally conducted as an out-patient procedure.

Rh sensitization: During pregnancy, when the mother’s blood is Rh-negative and the baby is Rh-positive, the mother’s immune system develops antibodies against the antigens of the baby’s blood. Also, when a person with Rh-negative blood receives a transfusion of Rh-positive blood or blood components, antigens are developed in the recipient. This condition is called Rh-sensitization.

Carotid artery: Carotid arteries are two in number and present on each side of the human neck. They are the major blood vessels in the neck, which supply blood to the brain (internal carotid artery) and to the neck and face (external carotid artery).

Stenosis: Abnormal narrowing of a blood vessel or any other tubular organ like ducts.

Embolus (Plural – Emboli): When a solid, liquid or an air bubble detaches from a blood vessel and travels along with the blood circulation, it is called an embolus. It could clog arterial capillary beds and prevent blood supply to that particular area.

Vasospasm: Spasm is a sudden involuntary contraction, and if spasm occurs in a blood vessel, it is called vasospasm.

Hemorrhage: Excessive discharge of blood from blood vessels.

Cardiac valve: Heart valves are thin membranes attached to the heart at certain points to allow blood to flow only in one direction. Mitral valve and tricuspid valve control blood flow from the atria into the ventricles and the aortic valve and the pulmonary valve control the blood flow out of the ventricles.

Cardiac output: Cardiac output is the volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute. It is the product of the number of heartbeats in a minute and the amount of blood per heart beat.

Vascular specialist: A doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating blood vessel problems.

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