Last Updated on Nov 30, 2019


Biomarker: Short for biological markers. An objective measurement and evaluation of a characteristic that indicates normal biological processes, pathogenic processes or pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention.

Seminal vesicles: A pair of tube-like glands found behind the bladder of males, responsible for producing most of the seminal fluid.

Vas deferens: The duct through which sperm flows from the testicle to the urethra.

Salvage radiation therapy: The radiation treatment given when recurrence of tumor is suspected or confirmed.

Genome: An organism’s complete set of DNA and its genes is called genome.

Genetic testing: A medical test that identifies and studies the changes in chromosomes, genes or proteins that constitute the genetic material.

Gleason score: Gleason score is a grading system based on cellular content and tissue architecture that provides an estimate of the destructive potential of the diseased cells.

PSA: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is produced by the prostate gland.

DNA sequencing: The process of determining the exact order of the nucleotides within a DNA molecule of a person. Various methods are used to find out the sequence of the adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine in a strand of DNA.

Genetic genealogy: The use of DNA testing to compare the DNA sequence of two individuals to infer relationships between individuals.

Genetic mapping: The process that helps in establishing the locations of genes on chromosomes.

Genomics: A discipline in genetics that uses techniques like DNA sequencing methods, recombinant DNA and bioinformatics to sequence and assemble the complete set of DNA. This is done to analyze the resulting combination of the DNA.

Metastasis: When cancer cells spread from one organ to other parts of the body via the bloodstream or the lymphatic system, the cancer cells invade normal cell. This invasion is called metastasis.

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