Cystitis is usually caused by bacteria that enter the bladder through the urethra. These bacteria can later even spread the infection to the kidneys.
Cystitis can affect both men and women and people of all age groups. It more commonly affects women because their urethra is shorter and closer to the anus. About 20-40% women might have experienced cystitis sometime during their lifetime.
Women are more likely to get an infection after sexual intercourse or when using a diaphragm for contraception. Menopause also increases the risk for a urinary tract infection. Incomplete evacuation of the bladder due to enlarged prostate (in men) or pregnancy can also cause cystitis.
A person with cystitis usually experiences pain or burning sensation while urinating, increased frequency and urgency to urinate, fever and lower back or abdominal pain. The urine may be foul smelling and appear cloudy or opaque.
The diagnosis of cystitis is primarily based on signs and symptoms. Urinalysis and urine culture help confirm the diagnosis and decide which antibiotic is best suitable to clear the infection. In case of repeated infections, the doctor may advice an x-ray or ultrasonography of the bladder and kidneys.
Oral antibiotics are recommended to treat cystitis so as to prevent the infection from spreading to the kidneys. Besides this, painkillers and medicines to relieve the burning pain can be used. The patient is advised to drink plenty of fluids, especially water to flush out the germs from the system.
Latest Publications and Research on CystitisClinical characteristics of self-reported nocturia in patients with interstitial cystitis, and effects of bladder hydrodistention (with fulguration of Hunner lesions) on nocturia. - Published by PubMed
Effects of caveolae depletion and urothelial denudation on purinergic and cholinergic signaling in healthy and cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis in the rat bladder. - Published by PubMed
Complete reversal of the clinical symptoms and image morphology of ketamine cystitis after intravesical hyaluronic acid instillation: A case report. - Published by PubMed
Risk factors for aquiring multidrug-resistant organisms in urinary tract infections: A systematic literature review. - Published by PubMed
A Review of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis. - Published by PubMed