Congenital: Refers to a disease or physical abnormality present from birth.

Cyanosis: Bluish discoloration of the skin mainly due to inadequate oxygenation of the blood.

Down syndrome: A congenital disorder which occurs due to chromosome defect, causing intellectual impairment and physical abnormalities including short stature and a broad facial profile.

Trisomy 13: Also called Patau syndrome is a genetic disorder in which a person has three copies of genetic material from chromosome 13, instead of the usual two copies.

Turner syndrome: Is a chromosomal condition that alters development in females. Women with this condition tend to be shorter than average and are usually unable to conceive a child because of an absence of ovarian function.

Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.

Tachypnea: Abnormally rapid breathing.

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