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Chemotherapy Drugs - Classification

Last Updated on Apr 12, 2019
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Chemotherapy Drugs - Classification

Several types of chemotherapy drugs are employed to treat cancer. They function by inhibiting cell division.

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Chemotherapy drugs may be be classified as follows-

  • Alkylating agents (or) DNA- damaging agents

    Alkylating agents act by chemically altering the cellular DNA.They add alkyl groups to the electronegative groups. Some examples include: Cisplatin, Oxaliplatin, Carboplatin, Chlorambucil, Cyclophosphamide, Mechloethamine and Melphalan.
  • Anti-metabolites

    The anti- metabolic drugs function as the building blocks of DNA by imitating the role of purine or pyrimidine.These anti-metabolites stop cell division and are widely employed for their efficacy. Some of the important drugs include methotrexate, fludarabine, and cytarabine.
  • Plant alkaloids and terpenoids

    These plant-based chemicals block cell division by inhibiting microtubule function.The spindle fibres, made of microtubules, help to separate the chromatids during cell division.

    Examples are vinca alkaloids (derived from Catharanthus roseus) and taxanes.

    The vinca alkaloids include: Vincristine,Vinorelbine,Vinblastine and Vindesine.
  • Podophyllotoxin

    These plant-derived compounds are primarily extracted from Podophyllum peltatum (American mayapple). They prevent the cells from entering the G1 phase and also affects DNA synthesis. Two cytostatic drugs derived from podophyllotoxin are etoposide and teniposide.
  • Taxanes

    Taxanes are plant- based compounds that increase the stability of microtubules thereby preventing the separation of chromatids during mitotic anaphase.
  • Topoisomerase inhibitor

    Topoisomerases are enzymes that are essential to maintain the topology of the DNA. Interfering with these enzymes prevents the normal functions of the DNA, such as transcription, replication and repair.

    Type I topoisomerase inhibitors include irinotecan and topotecan.

    Type II inhibitors include amasacrine, etoposide phosphate and etoposide.
  • Antitumour antibiotics

    Dactinomycin, daunorubicin, doxorubicin, idarubicin, and mitoxantrone are important drugs under this category.
  • Hormones

    Prednisone and dexamethasone are examples of hormones which, in high doses, can damage lymphoma or lymphocytic leukemia cells.
  • Monoclonal antibodies

    Monoclonal antibodies attach themselves to tumour- specific antigens, thereby increasing immune response to tumour cell.Examples are- rituximab, cetuximab, trastuzumab. Some monoclonal antibodies, like imatinib mesylate, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, targets an abnormality in certain cancer cells. Imatinib targets the philadelphia chromosome common to Chronic Myeloid Leukemia(CML). It is also used to treat gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

References

  1. MacDiarmid J.A. et al. (2007)
  2. "Bacterially Derived 400 nm Particles for Encapsulation and Cancer Cell Targeting of Chemotherapeutics" Cancer Cell 11, 431-445, May 2007

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Podhigai_Arasan

very nice and informative. I got all the information i searched for. Thank you medindia.

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