Cardiomyopathy involves a weakening of the heart muscles or structural changes in these muscles. This often leads to inadequate heart pumping or problems with the functioning of the heart.
The poor heart pumping mechanism leads to accumulation of fluid in the lungs, liver, and other body systems. Cardiomyopathy is classified into three morphologic types: dilated, restrictive, and hypertrophic. When the exact cause is not known the term used is idiopathic.
- Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: In this condition the heart muscles get thicker making it harder for blood to leave.
- Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Weakening and enlargement of the heart muscles prevent it from pumping blood efficiently.
- Restrictive Cardiomyopathy: This condition is associated with increased stiffness of the heart.
Symptoms include palpitation. difficulty with breathing (dyspnoea) and sometimes even Sudden death can occur, Complications like pulmonary oedema, arrhythmias and ascites can occur.
Sudden cardiac death is the most dreaded of the complications. International guidelines recommend that a risk stratification score can predict the outcome. These are the six risk factors to look for in a patient with Cardiomyopathy:
- Previous cardiac arrest or sustained ventricular tachycardia,
- Non-sustained ventricular tachycardia,
- Extreme left ventricular hypertrophy,
- Unexplained syncope,
- Abnormal blood pressure response,
- Family history of sudden death
Diagnosis is generally established by chest X-ray and two-dimensional echocardiography. In case the echocardiogram is of poor quality then the alternatives Gadolinium cardiovascular magnetic resonance magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT).
Treatment and outlook of Cardiomyopathy depends on a number of factors like cause & type of Cardiomyopathy. Heart transplant is a treatment option for selected patients with hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM).
- Cecil Medicine, 23rd Ed.
- Harrison's PRINCIPLES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE, 17TH Edition
- Garlic Oil may Protect Against Cardiomyopathy in Diabetes Patients - (http://www.medindia.net/news/Garlic-Oil-may-Protect-Against-Cardiomyopathy-in-Diabetes-Patients-74723-1.htm)
- Link between enteroviruses and dilated cardiomyopathy: serological and molecular data - (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1025673/)
Latest Publications and Research on Cardiomyopathy
- [Treatment strategies of patients with transthyretin amyloidosis cardiomyopathy]. - Published by PubMed
- Impact of Septal Myectomy Volume on Mitral-Valve Replacement Rate in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Patients. - Published by PubMed
- Altered Transcriptional Profile of Mitochondrial DNA-Encoded OXPHOS Subunits, Mitochondria Quality Control Genes, and Intracellular ATP Levels in Blood Samples of Patients with Parkinson's Disease. - Published by PubMed
- Increased Left Ventricular Trabeculation Is Associated With Increased B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Levels and Impaired Outcomes in Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy. - Published by PubMed
- Stabilizing cardiac ryanodine receptor prevents the development of cardiac dysfunction and lethal arrhythmia in Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIdc transgenic mice. - Published by PubMed