The cells that may give rise to these neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids) are called enterochromaffin cells. These cells are located throughout the body; however carcinoid tumors primarily occur in:
• Appendix (35% of all carcinoid tumors)
• Small intestine (22%)
• Lung (15%)
• Rectum (10%)
• Stomach (3%)
Carcinoid tumors may produce an excess of biologically active substances, such as serotonin, tachykinins (such as substance P), histamine, prostaglandins, etc. It is only when these secretions exceed particular amounts that symptoms start manifesting. The most common endocrine consequences of these tumors are –
• Cutaneous flushing,
• And heart diseases.
Risk Factors that increase the chances of this syndrome includes- Family history of genetic syndromes like Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1), pernicious anemia and run in the family.
Surgical removal is most effective when a carcinoid tumor and for symptoms Octreotide is a commonly used drug.
References:Cecil Medicine, 23rd Ed.
Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 17th Ed
Latest Publications and Research on Carcinoid TumorsAdenomatous Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Middle Ear: A Multi-institutional Investigation of 32 Cases and Development of a Staging System. - Published by PubMed
[Clinicopathologic analysis of primary carcinoid of the ovary]. - Published by PubMed
Massive hemorrhage after inspection bronchoscopy for carcinoid tumor. - Published by PubMed
Neoplasia and the Heart: Pathological Review of Effects With Clinical and Radiological Correlation. - Published by PubMed
Adenocarcinoma Ex-Goblet Cell: a Retrospective Experience. - Published by PubMed