Written by Dr. Sangamithra, MBBS | 

Medically Reviewed by Dr. Ramya Ananthakrishnan, MD Dr. Simi Paknikar on Jul 27, 2020

About Birth Control Pills

Oral contraceptive or the oral contraceptive pills contain hormones and are one of the most important and reliable methods of contraception.

They are of different types depending on what they contain

Combined Pills: These pills contain the female hormones estrogen and progestin. Estrogen is usually in the form of ethinyl estradiol while the progestin may be in different forms such as levonorgestrel, desogestrel, norgestimate or gestodene.

Combined pills are available in 2 different packs, the 21-day pack and the 28-day pack. The 28-day pack contains both the hormones in the first 21 pills and the last 7 pills have no hormones and are referred to as the spacer pills. In some packs, these spacer tablets contain iron. The pills are to be consumed daily at the same time. The common brands available in the US market are Levlite, Alesse, Mircette and LoEstrin while those in the Indian market are Mala D, Ovral, Novelon and Femilon.

Newer forms of combined pills are now available. Some contain hormones for a longer duration of 24 days and spacer pills for 4 days. These packs reduce the duration of bleeding. Chewable combined pills are available in some countries. Some hormonal pills can be taken continuously for 12 weeks followed by a week of spacer pills or very low dose estrogen. This results in bleeding only 4 times per year.

Phased Pills: Phased pills may be either biphasic or triphasic. In these pills the estrogen dose is kept more or less constant while the progestin dose is progressively increased in the later stages of the cycle. Common triphasic pills are Triquilar and 3-Phase.

Minipill: Minipills contain only a low dose of progesterone. They are not as effective as a combined pill. An example of a minipill is Ovrette.

Morning After Pill: This pill is used after sexual intercourse to prevent pregnancy. It contains a progestin either as 1 or 2 tablets. It is available in brands such as I-pill, Oops and pill 72.

Centchroman: Centchroman is a nonhormonal oral birth control pill developed and available in India. It does not have the side effects of hormonal contraceptives.

What is New in Birth Control Pills?

1. Do Women Choose Effective Birth Control Methods?

Women tend to choose more effective and long-term birth control methods when cost is not an issue, reveals a new study. Women are twice more likely to use more effective contraceptive methods. Forty-five percent of all pregnancies in the United States are unintended.

2. Texas: A Big Market for Birth Control Apps

Oral contraceptive pills or birth control pills can now be purchased through an app called Nurx without seeing a doctor in person. NURX, a San Francisco-based company provides various types of hormonal contraception. Women in Texas can purchase birth control pills through Nurx without seeing a doctor in person.


  1. Birth Control Pill - (http://kidshealth.org/teen/sexual_health/contraception/contraception_birth.html)

Latest Publications and Research on Birth Control Pills


sheena_hines Monday, July 21, 2014

What are the side effects of taking contraceptive pills? Do all women who take this pills face the side effects? Is there any way to avoid this side effects?

yogendra1993 Wednesday, March 26, 2014

i had sex on 3rd day of menstrual cycle. and it did not occur again after 35 day. can i pregnant.

Chinni123 Friday, March 21, 2014

What happens when virgin takes M-pill, not knowing that she is a virgin? Anything serious happens?

vkgtss61 Wednesday, September 4, 2013

my wife mensus was on 5th aug we had sex on 18th how to control birth

aisha786 Friday, August 30, 2013

i am 17 years old. i had sex before 2 months and i takes i-pill after 2 month.can i be pregnent.

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