Cysts: It is a resting state of bacteria when the condition is not favorable to reproduce. Cysts are used as a means of dispersing and spreading to different parts of the environment or body or location.

Phase contrast microscopy: This is a microscopy technique that uses changes in light to display contrasts in the image of a specimen. Hence, the different 3-D aspects of a cell can be visualized as close to reality.

Zoonotic disease: Infections that are transmitted to humans from vertebrate (with a vertebra) animals.

Sigmoidoscope: This is a flexible tube with a camera fixed at the end of the tube.

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