It is important to take down the history of the patient to understand the nature of work, exposure to chemicals or radiation or if there has been any history of infection.
A physical examination may show the symptoms such as pallor, tachycardia, petechiae, purpura, or ecchymoses. Some show signs of hepatitis.
Aplastic anemia diagnosis may be carried out through blood tests and bone marrow biopsy.
- Blood Tests- Aplastic anemia is characterized by low number of RBCs, WBCs, and platelets. Low blood cells can be a feature of other diseases in which case it is often confined to one type of cell, as in the case of anemias where the RBC is low. A peripheral blood pancytopenia mostly indicates AA.
- Bone Marrow Biopsy. Aplastic Anemia diagnosis is usually confirmed by bone marrow biopsy. Here, a small sample of bone marrow is removed using a needle from certain bones of the body, usually the hip bone. This BM sample is then microscopically examined to rule out other blood-related diseases and to confirm AA. The BM of aplastic anemia patients show hypoplasia or very low number of normal cells.
Once AA is confirmed other tests need to be carried out to evaluate the underlying causes of the disorder.