Causes of Acid Peptic Disease
Acid peptic disease is a result of either a decreased gastric mucosal defense or an excessive acid production.
Causes of acid peptic disease include:
- Helicobacter pylori: H.pylori is responsible for around 60%-90% of all gastric and duodenal ulcers.
- NSAIDs: Prostaglandins protect the mucus lining of the stomach. Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, diclofenac and naproxen prevent the production of these prostaglandins by blocking cyclo-oxygenase enzyme leading to ulceration and bleeding.
- Smoking, alcohol and tobacco: Cigarettes, alcohol and tobacco cause an instant and intense acid production which acts as though gasoline is poured over a raging fire!
- Blood group O: People with blood group “O” are reported to have higher risks for the development of stomach ulcers as there is an increased formation of antibodies against the Helicobacter bacteria, which causes an inflammatory reaction and ulceration.
- Heredity: Patients suffering from peptic ulcer diseases usually have a family history of the disease, particularly the development of duodenal ulcer which may occur below the age of 20.
- Steroids/Other medicines: Drugs like corticosteroids, anticoagulants like warfarin (Coumadin), niacin, some chemotherapy drugs, and spironolactone can aggravate or cause ulcers.
Low fiber diet, caffeinated drinks and fatty foods are linked to peptic ulcer.
- Other diseases: Chronic liver, lung and kidney diseases especially tumors of the acid producing cells all predispose to peptic ulcers. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (ZES) is a rare pre-cancerous condition which causes peptic ulcer disease. It is a syndrome disorder wherein tumors in the pancreas and duodenum also known as gastrinomas produce a large amount of gastrin which is a hormone that stimulates gastric acid secretion. Endocrine disorders such as hyperparathyroidism are also implicated in the development of peptic ulcers.
- Stress: Stress and neurological problems can also be associated with the Cushing ulcer and peptic ulcer.(6✔)
- Kunmam (Acid Peptic Disease) - (https://www.nhp.gov.in/Kunmam-(Acid-Peptic-Disease)_mtl)
- American College of Gastroenterology guideline on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection. - (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17608775)
- The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in acid peptic disease - (http://www.archintsurg.org/article.asp?issn=2278-9596;year=2014;volume=4;issue=2;spage=91;epage=95;aulast=Gupta )
- Long-term stress and Helicobacter pylori infection independently induce gastric mucosal lesions in C57BL/6 mice. - (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12465722)
- Peptic Ulcer Disease and Helicobacter pylori infection - (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6140150/)
- Peptic ulcer - (http://research.omicsgroup.org/index.php/Peptic_ulcer)
- Peptic ulcers: causes, prevention, perforation and treatment - (https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2743/c9faddd49671362f2fe2e4d45dac181089fe.pdf)
- Peptic Ulcer: Causes and Therapy - (https://www.pharmatutor.org/articles/peptic-ulcer-causes-and-therapy?page=5%2C4)
- Peptic Ulcer: Peptic Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition.
- Chey WD, Wong BC. American College of Gastroenterology guideline on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection. Am J Gastroenterol. Aug 2007;102(8):1808-25.
- Kato, Ikuko; Abraham M. Y. Nomura, Grant N. Stemmermann and Po-Huang Chyou (1992). "A Prospective Study of Gastric and Duodenal Ulcer and Its Relation to Smoking, Alcohol, and Diet". American Journal of Epidemiology 135 (5): 521–530. PMID 1570818.
- Malagelada JR, Kuipers EJ, Blaser MJ. Acid peptic disease: clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 142.
- Kim YH, Lee JH, Lee SS, et al. (2002). "Long-term stress and Helicobacter pylori infection independently induce gastric mucosal lesions in C57BL/6 mice". Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 37 (11): 1259–64. doi:10.1080/003655202761020515. PMID 12465722.