Written by Dr. Gayatri Krishnan, MD Anaesthesiology | 
Medically Reviewed by Dr. Sunil Shroff / dr. reeja tharu, MBBS, MS, FRCS (UK), D. Urol (Lond) on Feb 09, 2017

Causes of Crohns disease

What causes Crohn’s disease?

  1. Genetic predisposition?
  2. Infection by mycobacteria?
  3. Overactive immune response to an initial bacterial attack?
  4. Environmental factors/diet?

The answers are elusive.

A gene (NOD2) has been isolated which could determine the way a person responds to the disease.

Certain mycobacterium is believed to be behind the attacks of the disease, but it has not been proved conclusively.

Many believe that it is an exaggerated response by the immune system of the body. Excess production of Tumor necrosis factor –alpha is said to lead to the ulcer formation.

Pathogenesis of the disease: Initially it starts off as small shallow ulcers like the aphthous ulcers one would find in one’s mouth. Later it develops into deeper ulcers that may extend up to the bowel wall and at times even erode the bowel and extend beyond into the adjacent organs.

The areas of the intestine between the ulcers are often normal. The repeated attacks of inflammation cause narrowing of the intestine, and loss of the normal architecture of the bowel, leading to a stiff, rigid, pipe-like intestine, often referred to as ‘hose-pipe intestine’. The narrowing sometimes leads to obstruction and can precipitate an acute abdomen. When the intestines perforate it leads to a spill of the inflammatory substances, bacteria and digested material from the food ingested into the abdominal cavity.

The clinical and pathological features quite often mimic intestinal tuberculosis and close scrutiny will differentiate the two diseases


1: J Dig Dis. 2009 Feb;10(1):1-6

Inflammatory bowel disease: A survey of the epidemiology in Asia.

Goh K, Xiao SD.

University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

2: Am J Gastroenterol. 2009 Feb 24. [Epub ahead of print]

Differentiating Intestinal Tuberculosis From Crohn's Disease: A Diagnostic Challenge.

3: Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2009 Feb;13(2):259-63.

Inflammatory bowel diseases: highlights from the United European Gastroenterology Week 2008.

Kaser A, Tilg H.


Hanumant1971 Wednesday, July 20, 2016

I have Daughter Kumari VAIJAYANTI, who's liver transplant surgery done on 21 july 2009, after she has been growing normal. now she had loose stool more than 2 months. Transplant center detected it's a CROHN'S disease...

morello Tuesday, September 1, 2009

hello, thanks for sharing. by the way, what is the main different between crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis ? are they same ?

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