Normal Vaginal Bleeding
Normal vaginal bleeding is the periodic, bloody discharge from a woman’s uterus during menstruation. It is also known as menorrhea and is characterized by cyclic hormonal changes.
The ovaries in every woman produces an egg, each month, which travels through the fallopian tube and reaches the uterus. If the egg meets a sperm fertilization occurs and an embryo is formed. Otherwise the egg, along with the inner lining of the uterus, breaks down and bleeding occurs through the vagina.
The ovaries also produces hormones which controls the development of female body characteristics and regulate the menstrual cycle.
Menarche is when menstruation first begins in a girl and menopause is when menstruation stops in middle age.
Normally menstrual bleeding lasts for 3 to 5 days and during this phase a woman loses about 40 ml of blood and 35 ml of serous fluid. Initially the discharge is bloody but after a couple of days it is more watery or lightly blood stained. The normal range of blood loss varies between 2 to 16 tea-spoonfuls or from 10 to 80 mls. It is due to this monthly blood loss that women are more susceptible to iron deficiency anemia with low hemoglobin. This is more common among vegetarians
What is New in Vaginal Bleeding?
A vaginal estradiol hormone tablet and over-the-counter vaginal moisturizer were not beneficial than a placebo vaginal tablet and gel in reducing postmenopausal vulvovaginal symptoms in women. Understanding of postmenopausal vulvovaginal symptoms is more needed to improve treatment options.
Latest Publications and Research on Vaginal Bleeding
- Minimizing Surgical Blood Loss at Cesarean Hysterectomy for Placenta Previa with evidence of Placenta Increta or Placenta Percreta: The State of Play in 2020. - Published by PubMed
- TRAAP2 - TRAnexamic Acid for Preventing postpartum hemorrhage after cesarean delivery: a multicenter randomized, doubleblind, placebo- controlled trial - a study protocol. - Published by PubMed
- The cost-effectiveness of progesterone in preventing miscarriages in women with early pregnancy bleeding: an economic evaluation based on the PRISM Trial. - Published by PubMed
- Van Wyk-Grumbach syndrome in a female pediatric patient with trisomy 21: a case report. - Published by PubMed
- Use of nitroglycerin for parallel transverse uterine cesarean section in patients with pernicious placenta previa and placenta accrete and predicted difficult airway: A case report and review of literature. - Published by PubMed