Psychoactive Substances | Substance Abuse | Drug Abuse - Common Substances of Abuse

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Common Substances of Abuse

1. Alcohol - Alcohol is a depressant drug, produced by the fermentation of fruits, vegetables orgrains, that helps to lessen inhibitions and to relax.

Drugs:Common Street NamesEffects:Complication on Health:
Alcohol.Booze

Liquor

  • Spirits
    • Whisky
    • Brandy
    • Rum
    • Vodka
    • Gin.

Beer

Cider

Wine

Fenny

Arrack

Kallu

Toddy

  • General-
  • Brief period of Excitation
  • CNS depression
  • Increased-
    • a. Reaction time
    • b. Distractibility
  • Slowed/Reduced-
    • a. Thinking
    • b. Motor control
  • Dysarthria.(slurred speech)
  • Ataxia(unbalanced gait)
  • In-coordination
  • Loss of self-control
  • Disinhibited behavior
  • Amnesia
  • Blackouts
  • General-
  • Mild tremors
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Weakness
  • Irritability
  • Insomnia
  • Anxiety
  • Withdrawal Syndrome-
    • a. Delirium, tremens
    • b. Alcoholic seizures(Rum fits)
    • c. Hallucinosis
  • Neuropsychiatric Complications
  • Alcoholic dementia
  • Cerebellar degeneration
  • Peripheral Neuropathy

2. 'Marijuana' - which is a mixture of the dried and shredded leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers of the hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, is the most commonly abused illicit drug.

Drugs:

Common Street Names

Effects:

Complication on Health:

'Marijuana', or 'Marihuana'Pot

Weed

Grass

Ganja

Skunk

Hashish/Charas

Hash oil

Bhang

Herb

Reefer

Boom

Gangster

General-

Mild impairment

  • Consciousness
  • Orientation

Feelings of-

  • Light-headedness
  • Sense of floating in air

Tachycardia (increased heart rate)

Alteration (Increase or decrease) in psychomotor activities

Tremors

Lacrimation(crying)

Reddening of Conjunctiva

Dry mouth

Increased appetite

General-

No serious adverse complications yet associated

Respiratory tract irritant

  • Carcinogenic

Psychiatric disorders

  • Anxiety
  • Psychosis

Toxic confusional states

Hysteria

A motivational syndrome

Lethargy

Apathy

Loss of

  • Interest
  • Ambition

Anergia

3. Narcotics

Drugs:

Common Street Names

Effects:

Complication on Health

Heroin

Opium

Morphine

Pethidine

Methadone

Diacetyl-morphine

Brown sugar

Dope

Horse

Junk

Skag

Skunk

Smack

White horse

General-
  • Pain relief
  • Euphoria
  • Drowsiness
  • Unsteady gait
  • Constricted pupils

General-
  • Nausea
  • Constipation
  • Confusion
  • Sedation
  • Respiratory depression & arrest
  • Unconsciousness
  • Coma
  • Death

4. Stimulants / Uppers - Stimulants, also known as Uppers or Speed, are a group ofdrugs that bring about feelings of increased alertness and physical activity, making the user seemingly less tired, mentally and physically

Drugs:

Common Street Names

Effects:

Complication on Health

Crack

Coke

Blow

Bump

Candy

Charlie

Rock

Snow

Toot

General-

Increased-

  • Heart rate
  • Blood pressure
  • Temperature
  • Metabolism
  • Mental alertness
Feelings of-
  • Exhilaration
  • Energy

General-
  • Rapid or irregular heart beat
  • Reduced appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Heart failure
  • Nervousness
  • Insomnia
  • Chest pain
  • Respiratory failure
  • Nausea
  • Abdominal pain
  • Strokes
  • Seizures
  • Headaches
  • Malnutrition
  • Panic attacks
Amphetamines

Biphetamine

Dexedrine.

Bennies

Black--beauties

Crosses.

Hearts.

Speed.Truck drivers.

Uppers

In addition to the above: Users of amphetamines also exhibit-Feelings of-

  • Aggression.
  • Violence

Psychotic behavior

In addition to the above: Other complications with Amphetamines users-

  • Tremor
  • Loss of coordination
  • Irritability
  • Anxiousness
  • Restlessness
  • Delirium
  • Paranoia
  • Impulsive behavior
  • Aggressive behavior
  • Psychosis.
Methamphetaine

Desoxyn

Chalk

Crank

Crystal

Fire

Glass

Go fast

Ice

Meth

Above-mentioned general effectsIn addition to the general complications-Other complications with Methamphetaine users-
  • Memory loss
  • Impaired memory & learning
  • Cardiac damage Neurological damage
MDMA (Club drugs)

Ecstasy

Adam

Eve

Clarity

Lover's speed

Peace

STP

X

XTC

In addition to the general effects-Users of MDMA also exhibit-

Increased-

  • Tactile sensitivity
  • Sensations of newly
  • discovered insights
  • Perceptions

Feelings of-

  • Mild hallucinogenic effects
  • Empathic feelings

Positive mood states associated with-

  • Euphoria
  • Sociability
  • Intimacy

In addition to the general complications-Other complications with MDMA users are-

  • Impaired memory & learning
  • Hypothermia
  • Loss of appetite
  • Tachycardia
  • Bruxism(grinding of teeth)
  • Sweating
  • Cardiac toxicity
  • Renal failure
  • Liver toxicity
  • Paranoid psychoses

5. Depressants / Downers - Depressants are substances thatsoothe the excitable nervous system by calming the nerves and relaxing the muscles.

Drugs:

Common Street Names

Effects:

Complication on Health:

Benzodiazepanes

Xanax

Downers

Sleeping pills

Tranquillizers

Ativan

Halcion

Librium

Valium

Candy

Tranks

General-

Reduced-

  • Anxiety
  • Inhibitions
  • Pulse
  • Blood pressure
  • Breathing
  • Concentration levels

Feeling of-

  • Well-being
  • Sedation
  • Drowsiness
General-
  • Fatigue
  • Confusion
  • Impaired
    • a. Coordination
    • b. Memory
    • c. Judgment
  • Sedation
  • Drowsiness
  • Dizziness
  • Respiratory depression, arrest, & death.
BarbituratesAmytal

Nembutal

Seconal

Phenobarbital

Barbs

Reds

Red birds

Phennies

Tooies

Yellows

Yellow jackets.

Above-mentioned general effects.Other complications with Barbiturate users are-
  • Depression
  • Unusual excitement
  • Fever
  • Irritability
  • Slurred speech
  • Dizziness.

Life-threatening

withdrawal symptoms.

6. Hallucinogens / Acids - Hallucinogens are drugs that affect a person's sense of perception, sensation, thinking, self-awareness, and emotions. These drugs are obtained either naturally, or like LSD, from synthetic sources.

Drugs:

Common Street Names

Effects:

Complication on Health:

LSD(Lysergic acid diethyl-amide)

Psychedelics

Acid

Blotter

Boomers

Cubes

Microdot

Yellow sunshine

General-

Altered states of-

  • Perception
  • Feeling
  • Distortion of body image

Nausea

Dilated pupils

Increased-Body temperature. Heart rate.

Blood pressure

Loss of appetite

Sleeplessness

Numbness

Weakness

Tremors

Persistent mental disorders-

  • Panic attacks
  • Fear of Insanity
  • Distress
  • Acute anexity
General-
  • Flashbacks. (Persisting perception disorder)
  • Schizophrenia

7. Steroids - Steroids are man-made substances that are related to male sex hormones. They are useful for muscle building (Anabolic) and to increase masculine (androgenic) characteristics . Athletes aspiring to enhance their performances and individuals wishing to improve their physical appearances generally abuse steroids.

Drugs:

Common Street Names

Effects:

Complication on Health:

Anabolic steroidsAnadrol

Oxandrin

Durabolin

Depo-testosterone

Equipoise

Roids

Juice

No intoxication effects

Hypertension

Blood clotting and cholesterol changes

Liver cysts

Cancer of kidneys

Hostility and aggression

Acne

In adolescents-

  • Premature stoppage of growth

Males-

  • Prostate cancer
  • Reduced sperm production
  • Shrunken testicles
  • Breast enlargement

Females-

  • Menstrual irregularities
  • Development of beard and other masculine characteristics.

8. Volatile solvents / Inhalants - These are a wide range of chemical substances like petrol, spray paints, glues, laughing gas, which give off vapors or gas at room temperature, that can produce an intoxicating effect.

Drugs:

Common Street Names

Effects:

Complication on Health:

PhencyclidineAngel dust

Boat

Hog

Love boat

Peace pill

General-

Increased-

  • Heart rate
  • Blood pressure

Impaired motor function

Possible decrease

  • Blood pressure
  • Heart rate

Panic

Aggression

Violence

General-

Memory loss

Numbness

Nausea

Vomiting

Loss of appetite

Depression.

InhalantsLaughing gas

Poppers

Snappers.

Whippets.

Solvents-

  • Paint thinners,
  • Gasoline,
  • Glue

Gases-

  • Butane.
  • Propane.
  • Aerosol propellants.
  • Nitrous oxide.

Nitrites-

  • Isoamyl.
  • Isobutyl.
  • Cyclohexyl.
General-
  • Stimulation.
  • Loss of inhibition.
  • Headache.
  • Nausea.
  • Vomiting.
  • Slurred speech.
  • Loss of motor coordination.
  • Wheezing.
General-

Unconsciousness.

Cramps.

Weight loss.

Muscle weakness.

Depression.

Memory impairment.

Damage to cardiovascular & nervous systems.

Sudden death.

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Ayandiran

The information is good,simple and direct to the points,highly educative.but what are date of publication,especially reference purpose

THE EFFECTS ON THE SOCIETY Drugs and alcohol can cause effects on the society like:- illness… As a result of all these abuse of drugs in our planet earth today, there are so many economical problems as it can lead to mental illness like psychoses or neurological illnesses. From Engr. Spark Victory Ovadje 2347060834856

mag823

my daughter is intreatment as of this letter.she is a drug abuser of all drugs and she told me that she was born with an addicted personality.dont't we all have some kind of addiction be it coffee,video games etc?my probelm understanding this comment from her is that she used the drugs time and again,but had she never did these drugs,she would not have this addiction?

guest

Hi, Drug rehab centers facility can be defined as unrestrained substance intake. It is uncontrolled substance consumption over a long period of time. Drug rehab centers facility may result in withdrawal tendencies and can lead to various mental as well as physical problems. It also places the drinker at risk of accidents, arrests, poor job performance or other social problems. It can create kidney and liver damage and high blood pressure and even heart disease. It can also bring about depression and in some cases lead to death. Studies indicate that over 100,000 people die in the United States per year of substance-related causes. The craving that a substance abuser feels for substance can be as strong as the need for food or water. A substance abuser normally continues to drink despite serious family, health, or legal problems that he / she is facing. Substance addicts normally show few early signs and symptoms of substance abuse. ========= julie Problem With Drugs or Alcohol? This Drug Rehab has Helped Thousands of Individuals to Recover. Drug Rehab

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