Written by Dr. D. Sunitha, MBBS | 
Medically Reviewed by Dr. Sunil Shroff, MBBS, MS, FRCS (UK), D. Urol (Lond) on Dec 19, 2019

Breech Presentation and Delivery - Incidence

The incidence of Breech presentation in all pregnancies is about 3-4%. The percentage of breech deliveries decreases with advancing gestational age from 25% of births prior to 28 weeks' gestation to 7% of births at 32 weeks' gestation to 1-3% of births at term.

Fetal abnormalities are observed in 17% of pre-term breech deliveries and in 9% of term breech deliveries. Cord prolapse occurs in 7.5% of all breeches. This incidence varies with the type of breech: 0-2% with frank breech, 5-10% with complete breech, and 10-25% with footling breech. Cord prolapse occurs twice as often in women who have had previous pregnancy (or multiparas) (6%) than in the first time pregnancy ( or primigravidas ) (3%).

Nuchal arms, in which one or both arms are wrapped around the back of the neck, are present in 0-5% of vaginal breech deliveries and in 9% of breech extractions. Fetal head entrapment may result from an incompletely dilated cervix and head that lacks time to mould to the maternal pelvis. This occurs in 0-8.5% of vaginal breech deliveries.

Breech Presentation and Delivery - References:

  1. Breech Presentation - (http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic3272.htm)
  2. Breech birth - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breech_birth)


Dr.Niharika Monday, February 20, 2012


sarit.ranjan Friday, February 13, 2009

use of forcep in after coming head

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