How is HIV transmitted

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Dr. Reeja Tharu
Medically Reviewed by The Medindia Medical Review Team  on Apr 06, 2018
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How is HIV Transmitted?

HIV Transmitted

As with the transmission of any organism, there are 3 important elements to consider - the quantity, the quality, and the route of transmission

HIV can be transmitted from an infected person to another through: Blood (including menstrual blood)

  • Semen
  • Vaginal secretions
  • Breast milk

Blood contains the highest concentration of the virus, followed by semen, followed by vaginal fluids, followed by breast milk.

Activities That Allow HIV Transmission

  • Unprotected sexual contact
  • Direct blood contact, including injection drug needles, blood transfusions, accidents in health care settings or certain blood products
  • Mother to baby (before or during birth, or through breast milk)

Sexual intercourse (vaginal and anal):

In the genitals and the rectum, HIV may infect the mucous membranes directly or enter through cuts and sores caused during intercourse (many of which would be unnoticed).

Oral sex (mouth-penis, mouth-vagina):

The mouth is an inhospitable environment for HIV (in semen, vaginal fluid or blood), meaning the risk of HIV transmission through the throat, gums, and oral membranes is lower than through vaginal or anal membranes. There are however, documented cases where HIV was transmitted orally, so we can't say that getting HIV-infected semen, vaginal fluid or blood in the mouth is without risk. However, oral sex is considered a low risk practice.

Sharing injection needles:

An injection needle can pass blood directly from one person's bloodstream to another. It is a very efficient way to transmit a blood-borne virus. Sharing needles is considered a high-risk practice.

It is possible for an HIV-infected mother to pass the virus directly before or during birth, or through breast milk. Breast milk contains HIV, and while small amounts of breast milk do not pose significant threat of infection to adults, it is a viable means of transmission to infants.

The following "bodily fluids" are NOT infectious:

  • Saliva
  • Tears
  • Sweat
  • Feces
  • Urine

"In the past decade AIDS has affected almost everyone, often in deeply personal ways. The threat can sometimes seem so overwhelming, and the responses so inadequate, that we're tempted to feel there's nothing we can do. Working on this exhibit has convinced me otherwise." - J. Tevere MacFadyen, NAEC Project Coordinator

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sanfy

What kind of yoga and medicine is abilable in HIV from baba ram dev yog peth

I lost weight from 165 lbs to 160 lbs and maintained at that. I easily get tired. I had a lot of sex with same same. Have I already gotten HIV?

Dear sir i had un protected sex with a female as i was in a party and drunk while have sex i realized that i have no condom and i ejaculated out side please let me what are the chances of geting infected its about a mounth.

Dear Sir, My son of 51 years who is a Pediatric Doctor has been tested HIV positive in the month of April 2011. He is Gay [Homosexual] and even though we have informed him several times to use all safety measures but unfortunately it has fallen on deaf ears. Now after my wife has learnt about my son she has become paranoid about the issue and at times she is constantly worried about herself. Even though I have informed her that HIV cannot spread to others except by Sex,Blood Transfusion, etc. but she is constantly worried. She even feels he should leave our home and go to rehab. But at present these facilities are not available in our country Oman. Due to his extreme urge to indulge in sexual activities with same sex puts me at great worry cause he is very secretive and i am sure he does not inform is male partner as every time it is new person. I have spent several hours talking to him but the end result is the same. I would like you to inform me in such cases what can a parent do to stop this HIV transmission to innocent victims. I await to hear from you asap

BearLife

how are women have babys being hiv positive

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