Last Updated on Aug 02, 2021

How is Coronavirus Transmitted?

Coronaviruses keep shifting their host very often from animals to humans (zoonosis), from humans to animals (reverse zoonosis), between humans, and between animals.


In the case of the deadly SARS, MERS, and the 2019-nCoV, transmission occurs through close contact with infected individuals especially when they have a runny nose, sneeze or cough. Urine, respiratory droplets, sweat, or stool from infected individuals contain the infectious viral particles. Secretions contaminate the environment and those in contact with the secretions. It is important to practice good hygiene (wash hands, avoid unprotected contact with animals).

Transmission of Coronavirus

Hospitals are a major venue for the spread of the virus (nosocomial infections) since infected individuals are intubated due to respiratory distress. Delay in diagnosis gives ample time for the virus to spread to healthcare workers, family members and others within the confines of the healthcare unit. Individuals with lower respiratory tract illness are the main transmitters of the infection as the virus affects that region.

References:

  1. A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019 - (https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2001017?query=featured_coronavirus)
  2. 2019 Novel Coronavirus: How We Got from the First Case to Today - (https://thewire.in/health/2019-novel-coronavirus-how-we-got-from-the-first-case-to-today)
  3. The Novel Coronavirus Originating in Wuhan, China: Challenges for Global Health Governance - (http://jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1001/jama.2020.1097)
  4. Mechanisms of Coronavirus Cell Entry Mediated by the Viral Spike Protein - (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3397359/)
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  7. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - (http://www.ijmm.org/article.asp?issn=0255-0857;year=2003;volume=21;issue=3;spage=152;epage=160;aulast=Thomas)
  8. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome: A New Global Threat - (http://www.ijaweb.org/text.asp?2016/60/2/85/176286)
  9. Human Coronavirus Types - (https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/types.html)
  10. About 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) - (https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/index.html)
  11. How 2019-nCOV Spreads - (https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/transmission.html)
  12. Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) and You - (https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/downloads/2019-ncov-factsheet.pdf)
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  14. Why India Should Worry about the New Coronavirus - (https://thewire.in/health/wuhan-coronavirus-sars-mers-flu-pandemic-quarantine-bats-wet-markets)

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