Glossary

Amelia: A birth defect in which one or more limbs are absent.

Arthrogryposis: A congenital defect where there is fixation of a joint in an extended or flexed position due to contractures, resulting in reduced mobility of multiple joints.

Conjoined Twins: Twins that are physically joined at birth and sometimes share organs. In some cases, these twins can be separated by surgery, depending of the extent of the fusion.

Myotonic Dystrophy: A form of muscular dystrophy accompanied by myotonia (inability to relax voluntary muscles even after vigorous effort).

Phocomelia: A rare congenital deformity in which the hands or feet are attached close to the trunk, the limbs being grossly underdeveloped or absent.

Polydactyly: A condition in which a person has more than five fingers or toes on one, or on each, hand or foot.

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE): An autoimmune disease where the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue. It can affect various organs, including the skin, joints, kidneys, and brain.

Teratogen: Anagent or substance that causes malformation of an embryo. Examples of teratogens include medicines, infections, chemicals, pollutants, alcohol, and cigarette smoke.

Transgene: A transgene is a gene that is passed naturally or through genetic engineering techniques from one organism to another. This process has the potential to change the phenotype of an organism.

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