Evidence Based Medicine - Glossary

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Glossary

Randomized Clinical Trial: A study in which the participants are assigned by chance to separate groups that compare different treatments; neither the researchers nor the participants can choose which group. Using chance to assign people to groups means that the groups will be similar and that the treatments they receive can be compared objectively. At the time of the trial, it is not known which treatment is best. It is the patient's choice to be in a randomized trial.

Clinical Study: A research study in which patients receive treatment in a clinic or other medical facility. Reports of clinical studies can contain results for single patients (case reports) or many patients (case series or clinical trials).

Prognosis: The probable outcome or course of a disease; the patient's chance of recovery.

Case-control study: It is a type of observational study in which two existing groups differing in outcome are identified and compared on the basis of some supposed causal attribute.

Cohort study: Cohort studies are a type of medical research used to investigate the causes of disease, establishing links between risk factors and health outcomes.

Systematic review: A systematic review answers a defined research question by collecting and summarizing all empirical evidence that fits pre-specified eligibility criteria.

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