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Eardrum Perforation

Last Updated on Feb 02, 2019
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What is Eardrum Perforation?

Tympanic eardrum perforation is the medical name for a ruptured eardrum. The eardrum is the thin tissue that separates the outer ear from the middle ear and it acts as a barrier to infection. The membrane acts

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like a soundboard, producing vibrations from the sound waves that hit it to transmit the signal into the inner region of the ear. A hole or an opening in the eardrum could lead to hearing loss along with susceptibility to infections.

There are different types of tympanic membrane perforations based on the following factors:

1.Drainage

  • Dry perforations – Absence of fluid (pus or blood) drainage
  • Wet perforations – Presence of drainage

2.Duration of perforation

  • Chronic – Perforation lasts for more than 3 months
  • Acute – Perforation that lasts < 3 months

The type of perforation influences the healing rate. Eardrum perforations may heal in a few weeks if they are wet or acute. In certain cases, surgery may be required if the perforation does not heal within 6 months, i.e. in chronic cases.

  1. Ruptured eardrum (perforated eardrum) – Mayo Clinic: - (https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/ruptured-eardrum/symptoms-causes/syc-20351879)
  2. Ruptured eardrum - (https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001038.htm)
  3. Eardrum (Tympanic membrane) perforation  - (http://entcolumbia.org/health-library/eardrum-tympanic-membrane-perforation)
  4. Isaacson JE, Vora NM. Differential diagnosis and treatment of hearing loss. Am Fam Physician. 2003; 68(6): 1125-32.
  5. Sogebi OA, Oyewole EA, Mabifah TO. Traumatic tympanic membrane perforations: characteristics and factors affecting outcome. Ghana Med J. 2018; 52(1): 34-40
  6. Mehta RP, Rosowski JJ, Voss SE, O'Neil E, Merchant SN. Determinants of hearing loss in perforations of the tympanic membrane. Otol Neurotol. 2006; 27(2): 136-43.
  7. Gao T, Li X, Hu J, Ma W, Li J, Shao N, et al. Management of traumatic tympanic membrane perforation: a comparative study. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2017; 13: 927-31.
  8. Park H, Hong SN, Kim HS, Han JJ, Chung J, Seo M-W, et al. Determinants of conductive hearing loss in tympanic membrane perforation. Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol. 2015; 8(2): 92-96.
  9. Al-Juboori AN. Evaluation of spontaneous healing of traumatic tympanic membrane perforation. Gen Med. 2014; 2: 129.
  10. Ryan MA, Kaylie DM. What is the optimal age to repair tympanic membrane perforations in pediatric patients? Laryngoscope. 2016; 126(10): 2201-2
  11. Villar-Fernandez MA, Lopez-Escamez JA. Outlook for tissue engineering of the tympanic membrane. Audiol Res. 2015; 5(1): 117.

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