What are Ear Deformities?
What are the Causes of Ear Deformities?There are different causes of ear deformities that are listed below:
- Genetic syndromes: These include syndromes, such as Crouzon syndrome, Velocardiofacial syndrome, Down syndrome (trisomy 21), CHARGE (coloboma, heart defects, atresia choanae, growth retardation, genital abnormalities, and ear abnormalities) syndrome, and Goldenhar syndrome (oculo-auriculo-vertebral syndrome), which can cause ear deformities with functional defects. These account for 25 percent of middle ear malformation cases.
- Genetic mutations: These are observed in genetically-associated ear defects. Spontaneous genetic mutations may explain non-syndromic (atresia auris congenita) ear defects.
- Infections during pregnancy: These include viral infections such as influenza and rubella (German measles).
- Agents that affect development during pregnancy: Metabolic conditions, such as diabetes; chemicals, changes in pressure, exposure to noise, malnutrition, exposure to radiation, low oxygen, anti-epilepsy medications, vitamin A deficiency, and high doses of retinoic acid.
- Hormones: Deficiency of thyroid hormone not only causes ear deformities, but can also cause severe cognitive dysfunction and deafness.
- Alcohol: Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause various congenital deformities, including ear deformity.
- Smoking: Smoking during pregnancy can lead to ear deformities, amongst others.
- Chemical agents: Thalidomide is a teratogen, which can cause multiple fetal deformities, including that of the ear.
- Family history: A family history of ear deformities significantly increases the chances of a child being born with ear deformity.
- Trauma: In rare situations, trauma or other accidents can cause ear deformities.