Atrophic Gastritis: This condition is characterized by chronic inflammation of the stomach mucosa, leading to loss (technically termed as atrophy) of the gastric glands.

Autoimmune Disease: It is a disease where the components of the immune system mistakenly attack the cells of the body, instead of protecting them.

CFU: Colony Forming Unit. It is the basic unit for the formation of a colony, meaning that a single bacterium gives rise to a single colony.

Early Satiety: A condition marked by feeling full after having eaten a small amount of food, or before finishing a normal-sized meal.

Gastrin: A peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of hydrochloric acid by the parietal cells of the stomach and aids in gastric motility.

Gastric Carcinoid: An uncommon type of tumor that develops in the lining of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and constitutes 4% of all GI neuroendocrine tumors and 1% of gastric neoplasms.

H2-receptor Antagonists: A class of drugs that decreases gastric acid production.

Hypergastrinemia: Elevated levels of gastrin in the blood, which can be caused by gastrinomas (gastrin-secreting tumors). It can also be caused by antral G-cell hyperplasia.

Intrinsic Factor: This is a glycoprotein (protein molecule with carbohydrate molecules attached to it) produced by the parietal cells of the stomach and is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12.

Parietal Cells: These cells are located in the lining of the stomach and secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor.

Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPI): A class of drugs that decreases hydrochloric acid transport through the gastric mucosa.

Schilling Test: This test, named after Robert F. Schilling, is a medical investigation used for patients with vitamin B12 deficiency to determine whether they have pernicious anemia.

Vitamin B12: Also known as cyanocobalamin, this is a vitamin belonging to the group of B-complex vitamins, which are essential for the proper functioning of certain enzymes in the body.

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