About Careers MedBlog Contact us

Xiao Procedure Ineffective to Improve Bladder Control

by Julia Samuel on May 4, 2016 at 11:10 AM
Font : A-A+

Xiao Procedure Ineffective to Improve Bladder Control

Children with spina bifida, a neural tube defect undergo "Xiao procedure" which claims to promote bladder control.

A double-blinded randomized controlled trial of the "Xiao procedure" finds that the procedure is not effective to alter urinary incontinence.


The multidisciplinary research group studied children and adolescents with myelomeningocele or lipomyelomeningocele who underwent spinal cord detethering with or without addition of the Xiao procedure to assess the procedure's effectiveness in achieving bladder control. Children with these types of congenital spinal cord defects frequently suffer from neurogenic bladder dysfunction, which may lead to lifelong urinary incontinence. The Xiao procedure was touted for many years in China as being more than 80 percent effective in such patients. In the present study population, the researchers found the procedure to be ineffective in all patients at producing bladder control.

BackgroundMyelomeningocele and lipomyelomeningocele are two forms of spina bifida, a neural tube defect in which spine components fail to develop normally during the first few weeks of gestation. In most cases of spina bifida, the lower portion of the spinal cord becomes tethered to inelastic structures, limiting its movement within the spinal canal. This can cause pain, muscle weakness, foot and spine deformities, and bladder and bowel incontinence. Although surgery is regularly performed to de tether the spinal cord, some patients continue to have limitations in their walking ability and/or bladder and bowel function. The inability to control bladder and bowel functions hugely diminishes a person's quality of life. The potential of normalizing bladder function would be extremely valuable to patients affected by spina bifida, and this is what the Xiao procedure offered when first proposed.

The Xiao procedure, developed by Dr. Chuan-Guo Xiao, is designed to achieve bladder control in patients who suffer bladder incontinence due to spinal cord injury or spina bifida. During the procedure, a motor nerve leading from the spinal cord to the leg is rerouted and attached to a nerve leading to the bladder, creating a new reflex arc. If formation of the new reflex arc is successful, patients reportedly have been able to initiate urination by scratching their skin, which initiates the new spinal cord reflex.

According to reports by Xiao and coworkers, the results of this procedure were excellent in 85 percent of patients with spina bifida after one year. Other surgical teams have had varied results, but the present study is the first in which a control group was used for a comparison.

Present StudyTuite and colleagues studied the effectiveness of the Xiao procedure in pediatric patients (younger than 21 years of age) with neurogenic bladder dysfunction who required detethering of the spinal cord related to a myelomeningocele or lipomyelomeningocele. The researchers enrolled 20 patients into the study between 2009 and 2012, randomly assigning them to one of two surgical groups: 1) patients undergoing detethering of the spinal cord alone (DT, the control group) or 2) patients undergoing detethering of the spinal cord plus the Xiao procedure (DT+X, the experimental group).

Before surgery, all of the patients were bladder incontinent and none could void urine voluntarily or in response to a stimulus. During the three-year follow-up period, six patients--four in the DT group and two in the DT+X group--were able to urinate in response to skin scratching; however, this effect was sporadic and seemingly not directly attributable to the Xiao procedure.

The authors state, "no patient in either group was able to void normally, reproducibly, or consistently during urodynamic testing at any point during the study period." In fact, the authors tell us that all patients required diapers or Pull-Ups throughout the 3-year period.

The negative finding of this study "raises doubts about the clinical applicability of [the Xiao] procedure." The authors believe that a return to basic science and animal studies should occur before future human trials of the procedure are performed. They emphasize the importance of further research to study the Xiao procedure and other nerve reinnervation techniques because of the major impact that bladder incontinence has on quality of life in patients with spina bifida, spinal cord injury, or other forms of neurogenic urinary incontinence.

Source: Eurekalert


Recommended Reading

Latest Clinical Trials News

 Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) Differs in Early and Late Stage
Early and late Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) disease processes in the post-mortem brains were similar in some ways but dramatically different in others.
 Preventing Scar Tissue After Heart Attack With Hydrogel Therapy
Researchers have developed a new hydrogel biomaterial that adheres to heart tissue to prevent scar tissue formation after a heart attack and its consequences.
 Cannabidiol (CBD) Oil for Urinary Stones Pain Relief: Do They Work
The oil extracted from Cannabidiol (CBD) present in cannabis (marijuana) does not lower pain scores after common treatment for urinary stones.
 New Temperature-Stable Tuberculosis (TB) Vaccine is Safe and Effective
A clinical trial testing a freeze-dried, temperature-stable experimental tuberculosis (TB) vaccine in healthy adults found it prompted immune response and was safe.
 Artificial Intelligence May Detect Alzheimer's Disease from Brain Scan
Using routine brain imaging tests data, a new deep-learning algorithm was able to detect Alzheimer's disease with 90.2% accuracy.
View All
This site uses cookies to deliver our services.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie Policy, Privacy Policy, and our Terms of Use  Ok, Got it. Close

Xiao Procedure Ineffective to Improve Bladder Control Personalised Printable Document (PDF)

Please complete this form and we'll send you a personalised information that is requested

You may use this for your own reference or forward it to your friends.

Please use the information prudently. If you are not a medical doctor please remember to consult your healthcare provider as this information is not a substitute for professional advice.

Name *

Email Address *

Country *

Areas of Interests