Parents who are less educated and care for more than one child are more likely to have persistent symptoms of depression that can linger for as long as six months after their newborn is discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The findings are based on a Children's National Health System research presented during the Pediatric Academic Societies 2018 annual meeting.
"Using a validated screening tool, we found that 40 percent of parents in our analyses were positive for depression at the time their newborn was discharged from the NICU," says Karen Fratantoni, M.D., M.P.H., a Children's pediatrician and the lead study author. "It's reassuring that, for many parents, these depressive symptoms ease over time. However for a select group of parents, depression symptoms persisted six months after discharge. Our findings help to ensure that we target mental health screening and services to these more vulnerable parents," Dr. Fratantoni adds.
The study is an offshoot from "Giving Parents Support (GPS) after NICU discharge," a large, randomized clinical trial exploring whether providing peer-to-peer parental support after NICU discharge improves babies' overall health as well as their parents' mental health. Mothers of preterm and full-term infants who are hospitalized in NICUs are at risk for peripartum mood disorders, including postpartum depression. The Children's research team sought to determine how many parents of NICU graduates experience depression and which characteristics are shared by parents with elevated depression scores.
"Parents of NICU graduates who are young, have less education and are caring for other children are at higher risk for persistent symptoms of depression," says Dr. Fratantoni. "We know that peripartum mood disorders can persist for one year or more after childbirth so these findings will help us to better match mental health care services to parents who are most in need."
An American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' committee opinion issued May 2018 calls for all women to have contact with a maternal care provider within the first three weeks postpartum and to undergo a comprehensive postpartum visit no later than 12 weeks after birth that includes screening for postpartum depression and anxiety using a validated instrument.