A new study has confirmed the orofacial cleft (OFC) inducing effect of phenytoin, carbamazepine, oxytetracycline, and thiethylperazine. A possible association was also suggested between OFCs and oxprenolol and amoxicillin. The study is published in the latest issue of Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal.
The study's participants had been registered with the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities between 1980 and 1996. The study reviewed 1,374 cases of isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P), 601 cases with posterior cleft plate (PCP), 38,151 cases without birth defects used as the population controls, and 20,868 malformed controls with other defects.
Data was colleted from medical records, particularly prenatal logbooks, retrospective maternal data via a self-reported questionnaire, and home visits to non-responding mothers.
An increased risk for isolated CL/P was found in cases born to mothers treated with amoxicillin, phenytoin, oxprenolol, and thiethylperazine during the second and third month of pregnancy, which is the critical period for isolated CL/P. The risk of isolated PCP was increased in mothers treated with oxytetracycline and carbamazepine during the third and fourth month of pregnancy, the critical period for developing PCP.