Cholera is a disease that keeps on spreading in Uganda on a large scale, despite the measures taken to prevent it. Though the African nation has taken steps to detect, treat and prevent cholera by incorporating science and technology, there seems to be no end to it. The journal published by Public Library Of Science (PLOS), called Neglected Tropical Diseases, have found out the areas where the risk of getting affected by it is really high than other parts of the African nation.
Cholera, caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae O1 or O139, is estimated to infect up to 4 million people a year worldwide, and lead to tens of thousands of deaths. In sub-Saharan Africa, the fatality rate is more than 2 percent.
Epidemics have occurred in Uganda regularly since 1971 and a number of preventive and control measures are currently in place.
In addition, existing data-sets on population, rainfall, water, sanitation, and hygiene were used. The group identified cholera hot-spots as districts whose center fell within a significantly high risk cluster of cases or where a cluster was completely superimposed onto a district.
The group identified 22 districts at high risk of cholera out of 112 districts total which reported cholera outbreaks during the study period. 13 of the districts were near the border of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and 9 were near a border of Kenya.
The risk of getting affected by cholera in these hotspots ranged from 2 to 22 times higher than elsewhere in the country. A short distance to the DRC or Kenya border, proximity to internationally shared lakes and river Nile, and higher annual rainfall in a district were all associated with the risk of having cholera in the district.
"The findings of our study could be used as a guide to strengthen the cholera control program in Uganda," the researchers say. "Since a majority of the hotspot districts are near the DRC or Kenya border, it suggests that close collaboration with these countries would be an effective strategy for controlling cholera in that part of the world."