About My Health Careers Internship MedBlogs Contact us
Medindia LOGIN REGISTER
Advertisement

Treating Rare Genetic Blindness With a Gene Activating Chemical Compound

by Anjali Aryamvally on February 17, 2018 at 3:13 PM
Font : A-A+

Treating Rare Genetic Blindness With a Gene Activating Chemical Compound

People with a mutated version of the ATF6 gene are born with a malformed or missing fovea, the eye region responsible for sharp, detailed vision. This type of genetic blindness is called achromatopsia and has no cure. But, in an effort to treat this disorder, new study led by Jonathan Lin, discovered that a chemical compound that activates ATF6 also converts patient-derived stem cells into blood vessels. The study is published in Science Signaling

Jonathan Lin, MD, PhD, associate professor of pathology at University of California San Diego School of Medicine and Shiley Eye Institute, and team were the first to link ATF6 to this type of inherited vision impairment.

Advertisement


"We wanted to see if there was a way to correct this gene defect to restore function and help these patients with vision difficulties and blindness," Lin said. "But it turns out our findings could also help advance the development of new treatments for other diseases caused by lack of blood supply to an organ, such as occurs in stroke and heart attack."

The ATF6 protein is a transcription factor, meaning it helps turn other genes "off" or "on," depending on what's needed by the cell. ATF6 is normally activated when the cell is under stress due to the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins. Lin's team previously found that ATF6 is naturally "on" during stem cell development.
Advertisement

After Lin's team first published the link between the ATF6 gene and this type of inherited vision loss, known as achromatopsia or cone-rod dystrophy, a few years ago, people with these conditions began contacting them from around the world. Many had never known the cause of their vision problems and they were eager to see if they had a mutated copy of the ATF6 gene. They were also eager to contribute to research that would further the understanding of the disease and efforts to find a treatment.

For this latest study, Lin's team collected donated skin samples from a family living in New York. Three children in this family were born without fully functioning ATF6 genes. The researchers dialed the skin cells back, developmentally speaking, to produce induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) -- a special type of cell that can both self-renew, making more iPSCs, and differentiate, specializing into almost any other cell type.

Meanwhile, collaborators at The Scripps Research Institute screened millions of chemical compounds, using robotic technology to test each for their abilities to activate ATF6. They found 10 compounds that looked promising and gave them to Lin's team for testing on the stem cells.

"We weren't sure what to expect," Lin said. "We just hoped one of these compounds would have some kind of positive effect."

That's why the team was particularly surprised, Lin said, when they saw the effects of one of these compounds, known as AA147. Not only did treatment with the AA147 compound activate ATF6 in stem cells, it altered the cells' differentiation path. AA147 directed the stem cells to develop primarily into endothelial cells, which are essential for blood vessel formation.

"Normally, stem cells differentiate into many different cell types and it's difficult to get them to produce a good amount of any one specific cell type," Lin said. "Yet after AA147 treatment, around 70 percent of the culture turned into endothelial cells that were able to form blood vessels. That's the most efficient way to experimentally produce blood vessels that I know of."

Lin cautioned that AA147 is not yet a "bona fide drug" for many reasons. First, the effects they saw have so far only been replicated in cells growing in a laboratory dish, using high concentrations of AA147. They are now developing newer generations of the compound that are more potent at lower doses. Ultimately, AA147 -- or some version of it -- would need to undergo clinical trials for safety and efficacy before it could potentially be used to treat patients.

In the meantime, Lin said, the study provides valuable new information on ATF6's role in human development and how its malfunctioning can lead to blindness.



Source: Eurekalert
Advertisement

Advertisement
News A-Z
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
News Category
What's New on Medindia
Health Benefits of Sea Buckthorn
Contraceptive Pills in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Curtail Type 2 Diabetes Risk
Mushroom May Help Cut Down the Odds of Developing Depression
View all

Medindia Newsletters Subscribe to our Free Newsletters!
Terms & Conditions and Privacy Policy.

More News on:
DNA Finger Printing Genetics and Stem Cells Blindness Facts Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Best Disease Weaver Syndrome Usher Syndrome Christianson Syndrome Trachoma Acute Coronary Syndrome 

Recommended Reading
Gene Therapy For Blindness Costs 850,000 For Both Eyes
Luxturna involves injecting the gene directly into the patient that corrects retinal blindness....
Cataract Blindness to Double by 2020
Vrijesh Desai, a professional photographer diagnosed with cataract was implanted with the extended ....
Phone-Based Videomicroscope Useful to Treat River Blindness
River blindness, or onchocerciasis, is a disease caused by a parasitic worm found primarily in ......
Gene Therapy may be the Way Forward to Treat Genetic Blindness
Study shows first-of-its-kind gene therapy can restore vision to people with an inherited retinal .....
Acute Coronary Syndrome
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a sudden, acute life-threatening condition caused by a dramatic red...
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
Find out more about the degenerative disease- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis....
Best Disease
People with Best disease may be completely normal or may suffer from blindness in due course....
Christianson Syndrome
Christianson syndrome is a condition that occurs due to mutations (abnormal changes) in the gene SLC...
DNA Finger Printing
DNA fingerprinting is a technique which helps forensic scientists and legal experts solve crimes, id...
Trachoma
Trachoma is a bacterial eye infection. It is the main cause of irreversible blindness due to infecti...
Usher Syndrome
Usher syndrome is a rare genetic disease which is the leading cause of deaf-blindness in humans....
Weaver Syndrome
Weaver syndrome is a genetic disorder in which children show accelerated bone growth, advanced bone ...

Disclaimer - All information and content on this site are for information and educational purposes only. The information should not be used for either diagnosis or treatment or both for any health related problem or disease. Always seek the advice of a qualified physician for medical diagnosis and treatment. Full Disclaimer

© All Rights Reserved 1997 - 2021

This site uses cookies to deliver our services. By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie Policy, Privacy Policy, and our Terms of Use